With the interpretation of genetic code by Hargobind Khorana an India born American scientist in 1968, for which he received Nobel Prize mere hopes were changed into a real approach togene therapy.
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The gene is segment of DNA. A gene is chemically composed of nitrogen bases. (Nuclieotides.). The main function of a gene is to make one/ more proteins. The changes occurring in the sequence of nitrogen bases is called gene mutation. It is also called point mutation. It is of following types:
The term gene was first used by johansen 1909. After him several workers experimentally proved that genes are the fractions or part of DNA molecule which regarded as the genetic material. Suton and boveri independently suggested that chromosome is the container of hereditary units.