The unifying forces of old custom and traditions have declined to a great extent and factionalism has grown up as a major problem in rural life. Rural factionalism is not a recent phenomenon. It has a long history.
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The model that largely replaced structuralism was known as functionalism. William James (1842-1910) agreed with Titchner that the study of consciousness must be the central theme of psychology. But James disagreed with structuralists’ search for basic elements of mind.