Floods have been an integral part of the human experience ever since the start of the agricultural revolution when people built the first permanent settlements on the great riverbanks of Asia and Africa.
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Mountains and highlands are found in every continent; they cover about a quarter of the Earth’s land surface and are home to 10% of the world’s people.
Flood are natural phenomena characteristic of all rivers. As is known, the rainfall in India is largely dependant on the monsoons and cyclonic depressions. Most of the rainfall is received during the southwest monsoon season (June to September) during which heavy spells of rain are often experienced in the catchments of rivers over periods of […]
Experience has shown that loss of lives and property can be reduced significantly by giving reliable advance information about the oncoming floods. The people could be moved to safer places in an organized manner as soon as the warning is received. Cattle and valuable property could be transferred to places of safety.
Disaster preparedness could be defined as the detailed planning for the prompt and efficient response immediately as soon as the anticipated event materializes.
It is useful to consider these disaster phenomena together in the context of predictability because both floods and droughts are manifestations of the same weather element, viz., water. Floods occur due to excess of water whereas lack of water results in droughts.
For forecasting floods in the major rivers of the country, the nodal agency is the Central Water Commission (CWC) under the Ministry of Water Resources of the Government of India.
The Central Water Commission (CWC) through its Flood Forecasting Centres issues flood warnings. The State Governments, based on the local experience, fix a “Danger Level” for a river at certain places such as near cities or bridges.
Earthquakes are caused by the shaking shifting of the Earth’s surface. They occur suddenly and their impact is limited in terms of time and space. This means that only certain places in a country may experience an earthquake and it is seldom felt for more than a few minutes.