This is a simple form of learning. When the individual faces a new situation, he makes a number of random movements. Out of those movements, unsuccessful ones are eliminated and the successful ones are retained.
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It is general said that subtleness is the foundation of success. In today’s world of competition, seeking opportunity by faring in competitive examinations has really become indisputably a tough affair.
The cat in Thorndike’s puzzle box learns to connect a response with a stimulus, which is subsequently rewarded. The learning by trial-and-error is a matter of S-R connection. Kohler’s chimpanzee learns to perceive the relationships between various aspects of the stimulus situation.
The experimental study of animal learning by E. L. Thorndike (1874-1949) in the United States and his theory on trial-and-error learning provided the impetus for Skinner’s experiments on instrumental or operant conditioning.
A hungry animal is placed in a new situation. The hunger drive creates the need to obtain food, and pushes the organism into action. The organism exhibits a set of natural responses (clawing, biting, pushing and pulling) to seek adjustment with the new situation.