The Swiss Psychologist, Jean Piaget (1970, 1972) took a different approach from that of the psychometricians to understand human cognition.
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The cognitive theorists believe that conditioning is a matter of developing an understanding regarding how the learning situation is organized. Conditioning is just not learning of simple S-R associations.
This approach focuses on how people know, understand, and think about their world, and how their thoughts influence their behaviors. The proponents of this approach believe that people do not respond to the external events, but to their interpretation of those events.
Cognition refers to all the psychological processes used for acquiring knowledge about the environment. Cognitive psychology studies how individuals acquire, store, transform, evaluate, and use information.
An outline of the history of the development of psychology will remain incomplete without mentioning the contributions of Swiss scientist, Jean Piaget. His monumental theory of cognitive development, based on the observations mainly of his own children, has profound influence on contemporary developmental psychology.