Secondary groups may be defined as those associations which are characterized by impersonal or secondary relations. In every respect, they are opposite of primary groups. The relations among the members of the Secondary groups are indirect, short, temporary, casual and impersonal. Sometimes they are called “Special Interest Groups”. They do not necessarily depend on face-to-face contact. The examples of secondary groups include a nation, a factory, a political party, a trade union, a corporation, etc. These groups are born and developed in the industrial society. They are the representatives of a cold world. In fact, the warmth of the relations in primary groups cannot be found in the indirect relations in secondary groups. The relations in the secondary group are formal. This type of cold behavior can be seen among the members of an office. The secondary groups are controlled by formal rules. Here, the members are too many and too scattered to conduct their business through face-to-face relationship.


“The groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy are called secondary groups”.



When face-to-face contacts are not present in the relations of members, we have secondary group:

Kingsley Davis:

“Secondary groups can be roughly defined as the opposite of everything already said about primary groups”.