Yes, sociology is a science. The following are the arguments in favor of sociology as a science.
(1) Sociology employs the scientific methods:
The various scientific methods like observation, interview, case study, schedule, questionnaire etc. are followed by sociology for research work. After collection of data, it is classified and verified.
(2) Sociology is factual:
Sociology studies social relationships and activities. But its general problem is description of the social process. In this way, sociology makes a scientific study of facts and the general principles involved in them. Auguste Comte describes it as “Social Physics”.
(3) The principles of Sociology are verified:
The laws of Sociology prove true at every verification and re-verification. The validity can be examined anywhere by anyone.
(4) The principles of Sociology are universal:
The laws of sociology prove true at all times and at all places. For example, the ‘Social Taboos’ are uniformly found at all places.
(5) Sociology discovers cause-effect relationship:
Sociology traces the cause-effect relationship in social disorganization and other incidents, activities, and relationships in society and then formulates laws concerning them. For example, suicide is an effect of the present dowry system in society.
(6) Sociology can make prediction:
Sociology can anticipate the future and make predictions concerning social relationships, activities etc. Sociology can determine “what will be” on the basis of “what is”.
From the above discussion, it is clear that sociology possesses all the essential characteristics of science and so regarded as a science.