Community development has a wider scope covering a vast field of activities. Almost all aspects of social life come under its preview. Such wider connotation of the term along with differing emphasis on one aspect or other at various point of time prohibits any scientific definition.

It has been a movement all over the world. All the countries irrespective of their level of development have launched the programme. The programme has utility for developed, under developed as well as for developing counties. Of course its applicability is more emphasised in underdeveloped and developing nations.

There is no clear-cut demarcation between a developed and developing country. Whatever distinctions are given, they overlap each other. This is because of the fact that development is a continuous process. If follows a sequential chain. There is no end to this process. The state of development of a country depends upon the methods, techniques and its ability, to exploit the resources and to put them for the development of humanity as a whole.

All these things go on changing. With the passage of time man’s mind gets better off, which brings modification in these fields. But if due to some reason or other such process is retarded for a longer period of time, then that country lags behind. Comparatively other nations March ahead on there way and the country lagging behind become traditional, undeveloped or undeveloped.


Thus development is a comparative phenomenon, a relative term. Between these two, some nations are found which are growing slowly but steadily towards over all development. Such nations are termed as developing nations. Community development programme is undertaken in such country. The rate of development varies with the state of development.

Sometimes it is high in developed countries and some other time development occurs is high proportion in developing countries. Owing to its wider applicability and wider fields of operation it is not possible to put its scope within the boundary of any theoretical framework. However for the sake of convenience we can broadly divide the field of community development to the following categories.

1) Agricultural and allied fields:

Under this category activities regarding following items are included.


i) Re-utilisation of virgin and waste lands, ii) Creation of irrigation facilities, iii) Steps to popularise qualitative high yielding seeds, modern scientific agricultural method and equipment, creation of credit facilities for animal husbandry, soil conservation etc. v) Development of fishery v) Growth of vegetable and plans etc.

2) Co operatives:

Organisation of ‘co-operative service societies’, ‘multipurpose co operative societies’, ‘marketing co organisations etc, comes under this category which aims at securing people’s participation.

3) Education:


Providing facilities for free education to all at the primary middle and high school level, adult education and other literary services with the aim of creating awareness and consciousness among the people.

4) Employment:

To solve the problem of unemployment mostly in rural areas through development of trade, commerce, cottage industries etc. Which aim at full utilisation of man power?

5) Health services:


Arrangements for public health sanitation maternal care, medical aid during pregnancy and child care, midwife services, etc. Which aim at creating an atmosphere of healthy living?

6) Communication:

Construction of roads, arrangement for transportation and communication facilities etc. Which aim at connecting rural interior village with main national life?

7) Vocational training:


Giving training to rural artisans in their own traditional profession and introducing new scientific and technological inventions, organising the training institute’s in the field of tailoring, embroidery, carpentry etc. With a view to increase efficiency and productivity of the people.

8) Other welfare activities:

The social welfare activities like rehabilitation of old disable and destitute, provision for better housing, entertainment, promotion of cultural activities, organisation of sports and a number of related activities which aim at an all round development, comes under the scope of community development programme.