Sociology and Political Science are different from each other on the following grounds:
(1) Sociology is a science of society. Sociology studies all kinds of society, organized or un-organised. But Political Science is a science of State and Government. and studies only politically organized societies.
(2) The scope of Political Science is narrower than the scope of Sociology or the scope of Sociology is much wider than that of Political Science. Sociology studies all the social institutions whereas Political Science studies only State and Government.
(3) Sociology deals with social man or studies man as a social animal. On the other hand, Political Science deals with political man and studies man as a political animal.
(4) Sociology deals with conscious and unconscious activity of man, where Political Science deals with the conscious activity of man.
(5) The approach of Sociology is sociological. It follows its own methods in addition to the scientific methods in its investigation. On the other hand, the approach of Political Science is political. It has its own method of study like the historical, philosophical comparative.
(6) Finally, Sociology is quite young. It is not even two centuries old. On the other hand, Political Science is an older science. It has centuries of history of its own.
From the above discussion, it is clear that Sociology and Political Science are mutually contributory. A politician is basically a sociologist and uses sociological concepts. Without the sociological background the study of Political Science will be incomplete. Society acts as a mirror of political life of country. In short, both Political Science and Sociology are the two sides of the same coin.