What were the Reforms made by Mahmud Ghawan?

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Mahmud Ghawan now turned his attention to administrative reforms. He took several measures to curb the powers of governors, the chieftains and jagirdars.

He was determined to strengthen the authority of the sultan. With this purpose in view, he divided his vast kingdom into eight provinces.

Unlike the earlier times, the tarafdar or the governor was no longer in charge of all the fortresses in the province.

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Only one fortress was left under the direct charge of the governor while the others were entrusted to officers-qiladars and jagirdars-who were directly responsible to the centre.

The sultan kept an eye over their activities and defaulters were severely punished. The land was measured and classified according to the fertility of the soil, irrigation facilities and availability of marketing facilities and a complete record of the transactions were kept.

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