(1) It engages over 64% of labour force.
(2) It contributes 2-6% of G.D.P
(3) It earns 18% of net value of exports.
(4) It supplies raw material to a number of agro-based industries.
(5) More than 80% rural population of India earn its livelihood by pursuing agriculture.
(6) On account of regional variations in soil, topography, amount of moisture, variability of rainfall, a long list of crops, (cereals, fibre, beverages) feed crops, fruits and flowers are grown and Livestock are domesticated.
(7) Monsoons are the key to Indian agriculture. On its calender and downpour capacity rests the fate of millions of Indian farmers and it has been aptly termed Indian agriculture “a gamble in monsoons”.
(8) Intensive subsistence farming system is practised in India.
(9) Pre-dominance of cultivation of cereal crops. They are grown on 75% of the cropped area.
(10) India leads the world in respect of
(11) Food grains get lion’s share of Land use in India: 72%
Commercial crop: 18%
(12) Consumption of fertilizer was 18-4 million tonnes in 1999-2000.
(13) Nearly 40% of the net sown area in India is irrigated.
(14) India is first to evolve hybrid cotton.
(15) India is the richest country in the world in Livestock Population but unfortunately only 4% of land area is under pastures and meadows. India has the largest area under pulses in the world.
(16) The Indian agriculture is largely traditional, backward, old fashioned and subsistence in nature. Human muscles and draft cattle are still in use in various agricultural operations. Yields per acre are low.
However, much headway has been made in this primary activity through Government, Co-operative and individual farmer’s efforts. The establishment of agricultural universities in different parts of the country, research work done in the fields related to modern farm technology has brought rich dividends.
Green revolutions, white revolutions, silver revolutions, introduction of improved high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, soil conservation techniques, soil testing facilities, marketing facilities, yearly crop support price announcements by the Government, development of means of transport, establishment of financial institution for the farmers, agricultural extension services etc have brought in sea change in agricultural patterns and productivity in India.
(17) The per capita cultivated land in India is low in comparison to that in other countries of the world.
(18) India leads the world in the production of ground nuts and tea.
(19) India enjoys monopoly of lac production in the world.
(20) Food crops have preference in gross cropped area as compared to non-food crops, their share came down from 76-7% during 1950-51 to 66% in 1997-98.
(21) Fruit farming, truck farming flouriculture, pisci culture, poultry farming and dairy farming piggery are being developed in different parts of the country, where geographical and economic environments permit.
(22) India is the largest producer of coconut in the world. Nearly 2 million hectares of land is given to this crop. Nearly 90% of the crop grows in Karnataka, A.E, T.N. and Kerala. Coconut is grown over 19 lakh hectares of land and got 14925 million coconuts.
India is the largest exporter of cashewnut and provides 40% of the world’s production. India leads in the production of ginger, 65% and turmeric, 76% of the world’s production. India produced 88 m tonnes of wheat and 74 m tonnes of rice in 1999-2000, as such ranks 2nd in the world in respect of wheat and rice production.
(23) More than 500 high yielding varieties of rice have been evolved. Suitable practically to wheat there are over 250 high yielding varieties, every type of soil and agro-climatic conditions.
Wheat contributes 36% to country’s food grains basket.
An area of 0-65 million hectares out of 3-58 m. h.a. of alkali land has been reclaimed till the end of 2000-2001 in the country.
WH 542, UP 2338, PBW 342 etc. are some of the latest varieties of wheat developed for the irrigated areas in the country.
(24) Pulses are of 400 varieties in India.
(25) India is the only country in the world which has developed hybrid cotton. It can compete Giza 45, the best Egyptian quality cotton.
Fateh, Dhan Laxmi and Rajhans hybrid cotton are best suited in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. Production and Plant protection techniques for the crop are very successful.
(26) India is the 2nd largest producer of fruits (43 million tonnes) and vegetables (86 million tonnes). It produces 65% of the mangoes of the world and 11 % of the bananas of the world.
Mangoe, Banana, Citrus fruits, Guava and Apple account for 75% of total fruit production of India.
(27) Total foodgrain production in India in 2001-01 was 1961-3 lakh tonnes.
(28) No import of food grains was done during 2000-01.
(29) In 2000-2001 23 lakhs MTs of wheat was exported. Nearly 59000 MTs of rice was exported.
(30) Sugarcane industry is the 2nd largest agro-based industry. On 30 June, 2001, there were 506 sugar mills in the country. In 2000-01 nearly 4 lakh MTs of sugar was exported.
(31) Milk Production was 81 million tonnes in 2000-2001.
(32) Production of
(1) Mutton: 675000 tonnes in 1998,
(2) Pork: 42000 tonnes
(3) Poultry meat: 600,000 tonnes
(4) Beef: 1210,000 tonnes
(33) Production of Tea in 2000-01 was 788-7 million kg.
(34) Tea export was 144 million kg in 2000.