Apart from the above mentioned major dynasties ruling north and north-western India during the post-Mauryan period, we have a number of dynasties ruling in many smaller localities who issued different kinds of coins which form a major source of information regarding their existence. Puranas and the Mahabharata often call them kshatriyas.

Some of the important kshatriya tribes were Audumbaras, Kunindas, Trigartas, Yaudheyas, Arjunayanas, Malavas and Audumbaras ruled the land between Ravi and Beas; Kunindas ruled the area between the Beas and the Yamuna, presently the area covered by parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal; Trigartas occupied the region between Ravi and Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh; Yaudheyas were located in the territory between Sutlej and Yamuna; Arjunayanas, Malavas and Sibis were occupying different localities of Rajasthan.

The Mahabharata mentions many of these republican tribes, of which the most important were the Yaudheyas in Northern: Rajasthan. The inscription ‘victory to the Yaudheya tribe’ appears on the numerous coins issued by them. One of their official seals has the legend, j “of the Yaudheyas who possess the magic spell of victory.”

One fragmentary inscription mentions the chief of the tribe, who has the title of maharaja also called mahasznapati. The Malava tribe (Malloi of Greek historians) lived in Punjab, but moved south in the early historical period.


It is also believed that the Malavas founded the Era later known as the Era of Vikrama, for several early inscriptions refer to it as “the era handed down by the Malava tribe”. Most of these republican tribes became tributaries of the Guptas and vanished after Huna invasions.