Rajya Sabha is the council of states which is also known as the upper House of the Parliament.
The constitution provides that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of not more than 250 members of whom 238 are to be elected and 12 are nominated by the President of India. The 238 members are elected by the Legislative Assemblies of the states. 12 members are nominated by the President who have distinguished themselves in literature, arts, science or social service.
1. He must be a citizen of India.
2. He must be not below 30 years of age.
3. He should not hold office of profit under the government.
Chairman of Rajya Sabha-
The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The Deputy Chairman is elected from amongst the members of the Rajya Sabha.
The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body, not subject to dissolution; one third of its members retiring after every two years. Thus every member enjoys a six-years term.
Lok Sabha is also called House of People or the Lower House °f Parliament.
The Lok Sabha consists of 545 members directly elected by the people. 525 members of the Lok Sabha are elected y the people of the states whereas 20 members are elected by the People of the Union Territories. In addition, the President of India minutes two members of the Anglo-Indian community.
For being the member of the Lok Sabha one the following qualifications :
1- He must be a citizen of India.
2. He must not be below 25 years of age.
3. He must not hold any office of profit under the government.
Powers of Parliament–
Parliament is vested with impeach the President and to remote judges of the Supreme and High courts, the Chief Election commissioner and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India in accordance with the procedure down in the constitution. The power to amend the constitution als0 rests with Parliament.
Conduct of Business in Parliament-
Ordinary Bills are introduced in either House of the Parliament. After passing the Bill in the House it is then transferred to the other house. After passing the Bill by the both Houses it is presented to the President for his assent.
A Money Bill deals with the imposition and abolition of the taxes and monetary related matters. A Money Bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha. After«is passed in the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha. The Raiya Sabha is given 14 days to make its recommendation. If it fails to do so within 14 days, the Bill is considered to have been passed by both the Houses.
Sessions of Parliament-
There should not be a gap of more than six months between two sessions. Hence the sessions are held twice in a year.
Each member of Parliament gets Rs. 4, Of a month other than many allowances Speaker of the Lok Sabha g Rs. 40,000 per month and other allowances.
Supreme court of India:
The Supreme Court is the highest Court of Justice in India and functions at New Delhi.
The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and 25 other judges. The Chief Justice of India is appointed by the President, other judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President in consultation with the chief Justice.
Following are the qualifications for being judge in the Supreme Court :
1. He must be a citizen of Into.
2. He has been a judge of a High Court for 5 years. ;
3.He is an eminent jurist in the opinion of the President.
4. He has been a practicing advocate in a High Court for a period of 10 years.
Term of office–
Judges of the Supreme Court retire after the
Salaries and Pensions-
The salary of the Chief Justice is 33,000 per month whereas the salary of the judges of the supreme Court is Rs. 30,000 per month. Each judge after retirement Rs. 15,000 as pension.
1. It decides disputes between the union government and the states.
2. It decides disputes between the two and more states.
3. It acts as the guardian of Fundamental Rights.
4. The President can refer any question of law or fact of sufficient importance to the Supreme Court for its opposition.
5. Criminal appeals can be made in the Supreme Court if a High Court passed a death sentence reversing the order of acquittal of an interior court.
Removal of a Judge–
A judge of the Supreme Court can be removed only on the grounds of proved misbehavior or incapacity act as a judge.
The attorney-general of India:
The Attorney-General is the legal expert appointed by the President. He provides legal advice to the government of India and other legal tasks as are assigned to him by the President. The liability for being the Attorney-General is a judge of the Supreme Court. He can hold his office during the pleasure of President of India. In performing of his duties he has the right to take part in the Proceedings of parliament without the right to vote. He gets Rs. °.000 per month as salary.
Comptroller and auditor general
The President of India appoints the Comptroller and Auditor general (CAG) of India to perform all duties and exerciss: power in .’Section with the accounts of the union and states. His main duty keep a vigilant watch on the finances of the union and the states submits reports to the President and the governors to the states. a office for a term of 5 years or till he attains the age of 65 year whichever is ‘earlier. He gets 30,000 rupees per month as salary.
union public service commission
The Constitution of India provides for a Union Public Commission for the appointment of officers in civil services country. The chairman and the seven other members of commission are appointed by the President of India. They office for the period of six years or till they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
Its main function is to conduct examinations and hold interview for appointments to various services of the union. U. P. S. C. may also be consulted for the principles regarding the making appointments and in making promotions and transfers from one service to another.
Election commission of India:
The Article 324 of the constitution of India provides for ar. independent Election Commission to ensure free and fair elections to the Parliament, the state legislatures and the offices of President and Vice-President. The Election Commission of India consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two other election commissioners. They are appointed by the President for a period of 5 years.
Main functions of the Election Commission are the following :
1. It superintend, direct and control the preparation of the electoral rolls for election.
2. It gives recognition to political parties.
3. It allots election symbols to different political parties
To assist parliament in its deliberations, parliament committees are appointed or elected by the respective houses themselves on a motion made, or nominated by their presiding officers.
The Public Accounts Committee-
This committee scrutiny the Appropriation Accounts of the Government of India and report of the Comptroller and Auditor-General thereon. This commits consists of 22 members out of which 15 members belong to the Sabha and 7 members to Rajya Sabha. The chairman of the Public Accounts Committee is nominated from the opposition party.
The Estimates Committee–
This committee examines which of the money is well laid out within the limits of the policy implied and the estimates shall be presented to parliament. This committee con of 30 Lok Sabha members.