The needle-leaf forest biome is found in areas extending from the east-coast of Canada to the Atlantic Provinces westward to Alaska. In Eurasia, this biome stretches from Siberia across the entire extent of Russia to the European Plain.

This biome is also known as the boreal forest. A more open form of boreal forest is called taiga. In the southern hemisphere there is absence of humid micro- thermal D climates, hence the needle-leaf forest biome is lacking.

However, at high elevation (in mountainous areas) the montane forests of needle-leaf trees are found in D climatic regions.

In this forest biome there is preponderance of pine, spruce and fir trees. However, individual species vary between North America and Eurasia. In certain northern regions of this biome permafrost conditions exist.


Similar forest communities are present in the Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mountains, Alps and Himalayas at lowered latitudes. In the western mountains of the United States Canada douglas and white fir trees are found.

These forests are important for lumbering, saw timber and pulpwood are economically very valuable for industrial purposes.