Short essay on the Medieval Kingdoms of the North

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The Gurjara-Pratiharas of Kannauj:

They were perhaps the descendants of Gurjaras (foreigners) who founded a vast kingdom in Southern Rajputana. Nagabhatta was the first great ruler of this dynasty. Mihir Bhoja or Raja Bhoja was the most powerful king who ruled from 840 AD to 890 AD. In 1019 AD the Rathor Rajputs conquered Kannauj and put an end to the rule of Gurjara’s rule.

The Rathor or Gaharwal of Kannauj:

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This dynasty was founded by Chandradeva in 1090 AD. His kingdom included Kannauj, Banaras (Varanasi) and Ayodhya. His grand-son Ravindrachandra ruled from 1100 to 1160 AD. Jaichand was also one of the great rulers of this dynasty. His bitter enmity with his cousin, Prithvi Raj Chauhan of Ajmer gave an opportunity to Mohammad Ghauri to invade India. Chauhan of Ajmer and Delhi:

The Chauhan, clan of Rajput ruled over a small kingdom of Ajmer. Visalayadeva ruled from 1158 AD to 1164 AD. He was succeeded by his nephew, Prithivi Raj Chauhan. In 1182, he captured Mahoba the capital of Chandella. In 1192 AD he was killed in a battlefield by Mohammad Ghauri and as a result Ajmer and Delhi passed into the hands of the Muslims. Paramaras of Malwa :

The Paramaras founded their independent kingdom on the ruins of the Pratiharas. Its capital was Dhara. Raja Munja who ruled from 974 to 997 AD, was one of the greatest rulers of this dynasty. His nephew Raja Bhoja ruled from 1018 AD to 1060 AD. He built many temples and lakes.

The Chandellas of Bundelkhand:

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In the 9th century AD, the Chandella chief Yasovarman established an independent kingdom in Bundelkhand Parmal was one of the greatest rulers of this dynasty and was defeated by the Muslims and hi- Bundelkhand was annexed to the Muslim empire.

The Sisodias of Mewar:

Bapa Rawal was the founder of this dynasty. Mewar rose to its height of its power and glory under Rana Kumbha and his grand-soil Rana Sanga. Rana Sanga defeated Muslim rulers of Malwa. Rani Sanga and his grand-son Maharana Pratap fought many battles against Muslim rulers and did not submit to them. The Palas of Bengal:

Chaos and confusion prevailed in Bengal after the death of Harsha. Gopala laid the foundation of the Pala dynasty in Bengal and ruled from 765 AD to 770 AD. His son and successor, Dharamapala who ruled from 780 AD to 815 AD was a great warrior. .He was succeeded by his son Devapala who ruled from 815 to 855 AD. Later on the Senas of Bengal occupied a large portion of the Pala Kingdom. Lastly Moharrjmad Ghauri annexed the Pala Kingdom and thus this dynasty ended towards the end of 12th century.

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The Senas of Bengal:

Samant Sen wrested a large portion of Pala Kingdom and laid the foundation of Sena dyansty. Their capital was in Lakhnauti. Lakshaman: Senas was the last ruler of this dynasty. Bakhtiar Khilji annexed this empire to Muslim empire. The Solankis of Gujarat:

In the beginning, the Solankis were the feudatories of the Pratiharas. Their chief Mularaja I asserted his independence and established the Solanki empire. Bhima 1 was another famous ruler of this dynasty. Another ruler Kumarapala ruled from 1143 AD to 1174 AD. Alauddin Khilji invaded Gujarat and thus this empire was annexed to Muslim Sultanate.

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