(i) Alluvial fans and cones:

On descending to the plains from the hills the velocity of a river and the carrying capacity are reduced. At this point the river-sheds a large amount of load which assumes a fan or conical shape.

In the lower parts, many fans join laterally to produce a bajada or piedmont plain.”

(ii) Pediment:


It is a plain of eroded bed rock in an arid region developed between mountain and basin areas. Pediments converge to form pediplains.

(iii) Bornhardts:

If pediments occur on both sides of a mountain range, they gradually converge. Eventually the range is reduced to a very broad dome with the slope equal to that of the pediments on either side of the crest that consists of a narrow ridge of small scattered domes. These residual hills are known as Bornhardts.

(iv) Playas:


In deserts that consists of basins enclosed by mountain ranges the drainage is towards the centre of the basin from all margins When there is sufficient water, this plain is covered by a broad shallow lake called playa.

(v) Wadies:

These are channels formed during rains in desert or arid regions.

(vi) Inselbergs:


These are isolated mounds rising above the general level of a pediment. These are equivalents to monadnocks in humid regions.

Depositional Features:

(vii) Deltas:

These are submerged equivalents of alluvial fans.


(viii) Sloughs:

Depressions on the flood-plains of Meardermg Rivers, which are excavated during floods due to the tendency of the overflowing water to follow a short-course.

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