Short Essay on Factors Hampering Unification of Italy

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Italy could not achieve unification till 1870 on account of a number of factors viz. (i) the hostility of Papacy towards Italian units; (ii) rule in northern Italy of a foreign power and in the south of a dynasty of a foreign origin; (iii) the lack of wealth and industrial potentialities which helped the growth of nationalism in Italy, and (iv) a weak middle class.

In short, we can say that despite excellent natural boundaries, common historical tradi­tions and language, Italy failed to achieve national unification on account of persistent struggle between the Pope and the Emperor; the multiplicity of sovereignties; seemingly insurmountable social differences between north and south; an unwillingness of Rome Milan, Venice, Florence and Naples to sacrifice their glorious past for the sake of the national unity.

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