These forests are found in the equatorial and tropical latitude zones. These zones experience high temperature and abundant rainfall all the year round. So these forests comprise tall and closely set trees.

Trees are the dominant plants which grow in a dense formation. The crowns of the trees form a somewhat continuous cover called a canopy. But some of the trees have crowns well above those of nearly trees.

Equatorial forest biome is characterized by dense undergrowth of plants other than trees such as climbing vines, air plants, and parasitic plants. It is noteworthy that crowns of the trees form two or three layers.

The most important characteristic feature of these forests is that large number of species of trees is found together, so much so that about 3000 species may be found in a few square kilometers.


The wood of forest trees is hard and heavy. Various trees found there include mahogany, ebony and rosewood. Since individual species are widely scattered, logging is difficult.

Various types of animals and insects are found in the rainforest. Most of the animals and insects live in the upper stories of the trees. Such tree dwellers are called arboreal. Such animals and birds include monkeys, lemurs, parrots and various species of snakes.

Besides, beautiful birds, tree frogs, bats, lizards and about 500 species of butterflies are found in these forests. Surface animals comprise pigs, wild boar, peccary, antelopes, and certain mammal predators live there.