The components of ecosystem are abiotic substances, producers, consumers and decom­posers. The abiotic substances comprise inorganic materials such as water, carbon, amino-acids, humic acids etc. of the environment.

The producers called autotrophs are capable of preparing food from inorganic and organic compounds. The autotrophic organisms consist of green plants which prepare food from simple inorganic substances in the presence of solar energy (sunshine) by the process of photosynthesis.

The process of photosynthesis consists of a complex series of biochemical stages and is chiefly carried out by chlorophyll containing terrestrial and aquatic plants.

As stated earlier, photosynthesis is a complex process occurring within the cells of green plants where sunlight is utilized in combination with carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and carbohydrates.


Water needed for photosynthesis is drawn from the soil, where it is taken into the plant roots. From these producers which manufacture their own food, energy flows through the system along a circuit called the food chain.