Petroleum (Petro = rock + Oleum = oil, that ‘rock-oil’) is a compound of hydrogen and carbon (hydro-carbon 90-98 percent) including small quintal of oxygen, nitrogen, sculpture and organo-metali substances.
Crude petroleum is a mixture of hide carbons in solid, liquid and gaseous form, Bedsit being an important fuel resource petroleum provide lubricants and raw materials for number of industries Its products include kerosene, diesel, petrol, aviate fuel, synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber, thermopiles resins, benzene methanol, polystyrene and P.V.( phenol, acrylates, naphthabutacline detergent aromatics, gasoline, carbon black, toluene, acetic dyes, colours, food colours, pigments, explosion printing ink, film photography, greases, cosmetic varnishes and paints, lubricating oil, paraffin, wax etc. There is not even a tiniest part of the crude petroleum which goes waste or remains unused. That is why petroleum is called a ‘liquid gold’.
Petroleum is a precious gift to the modern society. Its use as a fuel in transport sector has played a pivotal role in cultural contact, time and distance minimisation, passenger and freight movement and providing relief during natural calamity and national crisis. It is a strategic fuel which has a great bearing on modern warfare and international geopolitics. Although serious researches are going on but scientists are yet to find out a viable substitute for this scarce resource.