a. Congress Socialist Party:
In the Indian National Congress there had always been a pressure group of the left-wingers. They wanted to combine national objectives with radical social and economic programmes. This group emerged as a distinct bloc as the ‘Congress Socialist Party’. In a meeting held at the Nasik jail the socialist leaders in the Congress formed an organization.
The participants in the meeting included Jayaprakash Narayan, Narendra Dev, Asoke Mehta and others. However, the Congress Socialist Party with a socialist programme formally emerged in April 1934. The Congress Socialist Party decided to work remaining within the Congress fold.
The Congress Socialist Party advanced quickly in provinces. Particularly in Bihar and Andhra the Congress Socialists developed close connection with the peasantry. The Congress Socialists also associated themselves with the emerging Kisan Sabha Movement. The Congress Socialists built up strong radical movement amongst the peasants and the workers.
During the Quit India Movement of 1942 the leaderless mass of people were secretly led by the Congress Socialists. At that time the Congress Socialists also set up a secret radio station that went by the name Congress Radio.