Written communication includes letters, circulars, statements, memos, reports etc.
1. It can be kept as permanent record.
2. It leads to better communication as there is less chance of missing any points in the communication.
3. It helps the receiver to get the doubts clarrified as he can refer the message once again.
4. It is suitable for lengthy message.
1. It is more time consuming.
2. It may not be effective as it will not establish personal contact.
3. It is difficult to maintain secrecy in this type of communication-
The telephone, as one of the major technological developments, has influenced the nature of human communication. It is the most useful and universal medium of oral communication with a person who is not present at the same place as the sender.
The telephone, as an instrument, has evolved, over the years in various sophisticated forms with many new facilities, like the intercom, the STD and the ISD. The intercom is an internal telephone system that allows communication within a building. The STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) allows a user to call a number/user in another city directly. On the other hand, the ISD (International Subscriber Dialing) allows the user to call a number to any of the major cities of the world.
Other sophisticated versions of the telephone is an answering machine that takes messages in absence of the receiver. Conference facility permits three or more persons from different parts of the world to have a discussion. Caller identification device attached to the telephone can show the number of the caller.
Cellular Phone / Mobile
The cellular phone is based on a combination of the old radio technology. Cellular phones operate through airways, like a radio. Hence, weather conditions, underground parking and fortified buildings may upset reception.
Cellular phone instruments have facilities for storage of numbers, for recording missed calls, for receiving text messages, and for receiving information given by the network. Cellular phone service providers offer other value-added services such as voice mail which is a personal answering machine service and call conferencing which allows a user to have a discussion with a minimum of 5 persons. The “mobile” has helped people to communicate with others from wherever they are. Technological trends have reduced the weight and size of the cellphone. A cellphone can be used as a modem, which is an important tool to connect to the internet. It can also capture still and moving pictures. Further, a cellphone can also be converted into a hand-held computer.
Telex is short form of Teleprinter Exchange. It is a world-wide service providing immediate communication through a facility of direct dialing. Messages can be sent and received throughout the day. The requirement is the availability of a teleprinter at the sender end and the receiver end.
The telex connection has to be obtained through the Post Office, where each subscriber has an Identification code for connection. The teleprinter has a keyboard for typing messages and a transmitter/ receiver for sending and receiving messages. The machine is fitted with a roll of paper, and messages can be typed out continuously. When a message is typed on the sender’s machine, the same message gets typed at the same time on the receiver’s machine also. Thus, the sender and the receiver can have a two-way dialogue by typing out in turn.
The cost of the telex message is based on the time taken for transmission and the distance. Recent developments in Internet technology has replaced the use of teleprinters.
Facsimile or Fax
The fax machine is a relatively essential item of equipment for any business. Fax transmits and receives any kind of message either handwritten, printed, or word-processed. In addition, it can also transmit and receive maps, diagrams, photographs, etc. The transmission of fax message happens within seconds, depending on the length of the document.
The fax machine works by scanning a document, converting the information into electronic impulses, and it sends the impulses by telephone to a fax receiver. The receiver converts the impulses into the original print or graphic form.
However, there is one problem with fax. The message must be re-entered into, a computer. This can be overcome, by developing integrated technologies. Very recent models of computer with different configurations have an in-built modem and software for fax. This is included as a part of the Windows package. Here again, fax through a computer can transmit only messages which have been created on the computer but not the document, like a fax machine can.
The internet is a rich source of information, a link to the world, an educational tool, an entertainment medium. The term internet has been coined by the combination of two words namely, “interconnectivity” and “networks”. Hence, it is called the network of networks.
The internet is a vast pool of resources that offers different opportunities to different people. A company or an organisation, or even, an individual can get global presence through the internet. The internet also opens up a web of employment opportunities. It is the ultimate in technology providing information. For instance, information from hundreds of libraries is available at all times on the internet. With the internet, the opportunity to communicate across the world at least cost is possible.
E-commerce, the cutting-edge application of the internet aids in various business functions such as ordering of items, quotations, items, bills payment, etc.
Electronic Mail or E-mail
Individuals and businesses, today operate in a high-speed era. Most of the activities are electronic using computer-based technology. Electronic mail or e-mail, as it is commonly known, has evolved as an effective, low-cost and quick method of communication with friends, colleagues, business partners and others all over the world. It is a worldwide web and therefore can be accessed anywhere with a personal e-mail id.
With e-mail, messages are keyed into a computer and then transmitted to the recipient or simultaneously to many recipients. Many e-mail messages are short and other information like charts, graphs, tables, documents, pictures, etc., can be attached to them. Once an e-mail message is sent, it may be read by the recipient within seconds and hence evokes instant responses.
Electronic mail requires a computer, a telephone line and a modem. The connection is given by e-mail ant Internet Service Providers (ISP) like Satyam, VSNL, etc.
The most exciting innovation of the internet, is video conferencing. Using this technology, a meeting can be conducted through television displays of the participants situated at different places simultaneously, along with their voices. Thus, the participants can see one another on television monitors and can hear one another. Video conferencing closely approximates to a real-time meeting. One of its obvious advantages, is that videotapes of meetings can be made and kept for record.
The participants in video conferencing can also present charts, graphs, or other material. Video conferencing saves travel costs. The key people in different locations can meet as often as possible to sort out problems & issues without having to travel.
Video conferencing requires certain basic components such as, monitor, camera, microphone, speakers, codec (compressor – decompressor), equipment control pad at each location, and network services to connect the locations. Depending on the level of technology, video conferencing may be Broadcast video with the broadcasting site transmitting its image to many sites that may be able to communicate back through standard telephone lines. This is very much like an actual conference or meeting.