In fact Home Science integrates various aspects of family life, but all those can be classified into following broad categories:
(1)Food and Nutrition, (2)Human Development (or say child care and development), (3) Resource Management (or economic aspects) and (4) Textile and clothing.
In olden days, generally girls were being given knowledge from their parents and grand parents. But with the scientific development, various new concepts have evolved replacing old ones and accordingly Home Science has also now become a Science as well as an Art. Besides above topic, we shall discuss importance and relevance of study of Home Science and career options in Home Science also.
1. Foods and Nutrition
In the field of foods and Nutrition, national food problems, their effect on food production and its supply and also on the economy are very important.
The scientific facts about the nature of food; the constituents of food; the foods required for the growth and maintenance of body functions; food needs at different stages of growth; nutritional deficiencies and ways of overcoming them are very important, besides preparation of foods in such a way so as to retain the maximum nutritive value and preserve its flavor, taste and appearance.
The ways of making the best use of the money available for food; the bio-chemical changes the food undergoes in the body; the preservation of surplus food and fats; superstitions and wrong food habits has definite and far reaching effects.
Food production sanitary handling of food, avoidance of waste, hygiene of food, the psychological effects and pleasures of eating and the important relationship between an adequate diet and health; are some other important functions.
2. Human Development (Child Development)
Children are the future citizens of the nation. They must be brought up in an atmosphere which is conductive their growth and development.
The children must grow into men and women with strength of character to meet the challenges of life.
The mother is responsible for the success of failure of the child. The mother must know the needs of childhood and the physiological changes the take place during growth. Children’s clothing, food combination, recreation, education and the factors of conditions which promote their proper health are important aspects of proper growth. The education particularly plays important role.
Education: People of the rural areas are deprived of formal education and they are ignorant about even the simple essentials of life.
Developing clean and healthy habits in children, their immunization, sources of nutritious diet, proper cooking techniques, why and how to obtain proper lighting and ventilation in homes, simple home sewing and embroidery, use of waste material and budgeting household expenditure within resources, etc., are only a few of the simple yet significant aspects of family life which are covered in Home Science.
It is then very urgent need of the hour that urban as well as rural girls must be educated and all such aspects of life be taught Home Science to them.
3. Management of Family Resources
Management covers the entire success of the Home Science ‘Management’ implies making the best use of the available material and human resource so as to obtain the best results and to conserve time, energy, money, space and labor.
It means getting most economically and efficiently what we want, out of what we have. For good management, all the members of the family must work in coordination and, set-up common goals, make plans and contribute towards the efficiency and happiness of the home.
The home-maker must plan wisely, to provide the best possible food, clothing, shelter, health, education and recreation for the members of her family out of the available resources. She must evaluate her needs according to priorities, increase her income through sound management and subsidiary occupations or handicrafts, and save for the future. Making use of short cut work and labor-saving devices is a great skill.
The house influences the mental and physical health of human beings throughout life. Therefore, the basic facts about housing designs, its proper furnishing to save money and labor, and methods of getting the maximum word done through minimum equipment, are few important considerations in the field.
Under housing is also included how to build a house for beauty , health , ventilation , freedom of movement , comfort and functional efficiency ; how to make appropriate adjustments and modifications in rented and purchased house ; and how to construct and maintain home or kitchen gardens and landscape gardens.
4. Textiles and Clothing
Under the textile are included selection , provision and care of clothing ; its effect on the family income ; the chemical nature and the behavior of different textiles ; different types of weaves ; the quality of silk , wool , cotton , linen , and other natural fibers, such as , rayon , nylon , etc., the choice of clothes according to income , age , season , occupation ; color designs ;the advantages of making one’s own clothes and the historical background of clothing as indicating the national character .
Methods of washing clothes, mending cloths, taking care of clothes and storing clothes are the important aspects of this field. Basically speaking, a man creates an effective impression on society through the cloths he wears.