Networking is a vital factor for the successful working of information systems. There are various networking systems, i.e., Television networks. Railway networks, Post and Telegraph networks and Computer networks. But the contributions of computer networking are significant. In a computer networking, computers are connected with one another for sharing programs, data’s, documents etc. or in short information’s.
Computer network systems are mainly two types. i.e.
(a) The Local Area Network (LAN) for smart
distance with a high data transfer rate.
(b) The Wide Area Network (WAN) for greater
physical distance with a low transfer rate.
With tremendous revolution in micro computer (PC) in early eighties, the LAN system gained its momentum.
The LAN system in a PC can work within a short distance, i.e., with the same floor in a building or in different floors of the same building through cable networking. LANs consist of workstations that are connected to a control computer called FILE SERVER (special purpose computer).The file server is.
The central node of any of the network systems that sends instructions to the workstations. Actually workstations are the nodal computers and the users use it for executing their application programs locally. The work stations send request to the central node i.e., file server for receiving the desired instructions.
LANS network topologies are of three types i.e., (a) star, (b) ring and (c) bus. Network technology is the method by which various terminals/stations are connected with each other. LAN can be connected to larger networks including mainframe computers. This gives the users of LANS access to enormous computing power and excellent communication facilities. Computerization in banking system is the best example of LAN network.
When computer system connections cover a long distance or larger geographical area like intercity, intercity or countries to share information’s, the configuration is called Wide Area Network (WAN). This is basically are extensions of LAN through telephone links and satellite connections. A Router (special purpose computer) and software’s are required to establish the link.