Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee was an enthusiastic participant in the Non-Cooperation Movement. However, disillusioned by the early withdrawal of the movement, he joined the revolutionary group of nationalists.
For some time, he associated himself with the activities of Anushilan Samiti in Bengal. Later, he became involved in terrorist activities in the region covering Punjab-U.P.-Bihar.
He played a prominent role in the founding of Hindustan Republican Association/Army (later renamed Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) in October 1924 in Kanpur, the aim of which was to overthrow the colonial government through an armed rebellion. He was arrested for being involved in the Kakori Robbery in 1925 and transported for life.
After being released he formed the Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1940. In 1942, he was once again arrested during the Quit India Movement. About 24 years of Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee’s life were spent in jail.