50 interesting questions on Sociology – Answered


51. Euphoria, a term coined by Radcliffe Brown means

(a) A state of chaos

(b) A state of equilibrium


(c) A state of social well being

(d) A state of social disequilibrium

52. Who pioneered the method spychoanalyis?

(a) John Piaget


(b) Festinger

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) Erving Goffman

53. Who gave Theories of the Middle Range’?


(a) Talcott Parsons

(b) Festinger

(c) Timasheff

(d) Emile Durkheim


54. Deriving the word from Latin ‘socius’ and the Greek ‘logos’, he in his classification of the sciences made sociology both logically and chronologically posterior to the other sciences as the least general and most complex of all who was he?

(a) St. Simon

(b) Herbert Spencer

(c) Auguste Comte


(d) Montesquieu

55. Who classified societies according to their volume and density?

(a) David Riesman

(b) R.E. Park

(c) Durkheim

(d) Burgess

56. According to whom ‘sociology is a pure or theoretical science and not an applied science’ ?

(a) Maclver and Page

(b) Karl Marx

(c) R. Bierstedt

(d) Kingsley Davis

57. _________ is a term used to denote a state of social well being?

(a) Euphoria

(b) Anomie

(c) Dysphoria

(d) Equilibrium

58. Who carried out his/her fieldwork in the southern part of the Sudan among the Azande and the Nuer?

(a) Margaret Mead

(b) Radcliffe Brown

(c) G.H. Mead

(d) Evans Pritchard

59. Who wrote the following books?

(i) Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande, 1937

(ii) The Nuer, 1940

(iii) The Sanusi of Cyrenaica, 1949

(iv) Kinship and Marriage among the Nuer, 1951

(v) Nuer Religion, 1956

(a) Radcliffe Brown

(b)M. Gluckman

(c) B. Malinowski

(d) Evans Pritchard

60. For him societies were moral systems and it was pertinent to examine symbols and their meaning to people. In this he helped to direct the interest of social anthropologists into a new direction. Who was he?

(a) Radcliffe Brown

(b) B. Malinowski

(c) Evans Pritchard

(d) M. Gluckman

61. The notion of order, change and progress are inherent in the concept of

(a) Evolution

(b) Revolution

(c) Social change

(d) Social development

62. Who distinguished between 3 stages of mental activity-the conjectural, the miconjectural, and the positive?

(a) Saint Simon

(b) Auguste Comte

(c) Aristotle

(d) Montesquieu

63. Like Saint Simon, he also distinguished 3 stages-theological, metaphysical and scientific-and argued that all societies pass through them. Identify the person being referred to.

(a) Malinowski

(b) Montesquieu

(c) Auguste Comte

(d) Herbert Spencer

64. Who saw society as a social organism possessing a harmony of structure and function?

(a) Auguste Comte

(b) B. Malinowski

(c) Aristotle

(d) E. Durkheim

65. He felt that there was in social life a change from simple to complex forms-from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous and that there was with society an integration of the ‘whole’ and a differentiation of the parts. He developed many of Comte’s ideas in his ‘principles of sociology’. Identify the person,

(a) Herbert Spencer

(b) Emile Durkheim

(c) Henry Maine

(d) E.B. Tylor

66. Who first propounded the theory of social revolution?

(a) Herbert Spencer

(b) Wallace and Darwin

(c) Aristotle

(d) Montesquieu

67. Who argued that societies developed from organisational forms where relationships were based on status to those based upon contract?

(a) Sir Henry Maine

(b) Auguste Comte

(c) Herbert Spencer

(d) None of them

68. He sought to establish the patrarchal family as the primary form of social group. Who was he ?

(a) Spencer

(b) Bachofen

(c) Henry Maine

(d) None of these

69. He in his Ancient Society, 1878, developed Bachofen’s notions and established an elaborate sequence of family forms from primordial promiscuity to monogamy through which he thought societies must pass. Identify the sociologist.

(a) E.B. Tylor

(b) L.H. Morgan

(c) Henry Maine

(d) Emile Durkheim

70. Match the following.

(A) Das Mutterecht

(i) Sir James Frazer

(B) Primitive Culture

(ii) Sir Henry Maine

(C)The Golden

(iii) J.J. Bachofen Bough

(D) Ancient Law

(iv) E.B. Tylor and choose the correct option.

(a) A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii

(b) A-i, B-iv, C-ii, D-iii

(c) A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii

(d) A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i

71. Who put forward a materialist variant of the evolutionary theory?

(a) Marx and Engels

(b) Althusser

(c) Habermas

(d) None of them

72. Who identified 5 stages or categories within which, economically, all societies could be placed?

(a) Karl Marx

(b) W. Rostow

(c) Andre Gunder Frank

(d) Sir Henry Maine

73. There is a reciprocal interdependence of individuals and society in creating social reality. Who subscribes to this view?

(a) R Berger and T. Luckmann

(b) Herbert Blumer

(c) William James

(d) None of the above

74. With who is ‘Interaction Process Analysis’ associated?

(a) Edward A. Shils

(b) Robert F. Bales

(c) Talcott Parsons

(d) J.L. Moreno

75. Who uses the concepts of external and internal system?

(a) G.C. Homans

(b) J. Klein

(c) E. Durkheim

(d) Radcliffe Brown

76. Match the following.

(A)Interaction Process Analysis

(i) Radcliffe Brown

(B) Survival of the Fittest

(ii) Herbert Spencer

(C) Social Construction of Reality

(iii) Robert F. Bales

(D) Euphoria

(iv) Berger and Luckmann and find out the correct option.


(a) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(b) (i) (iii) (iv) (ii)

(c) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii)

(d) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

77. With whom do you associate the concept of social fact?

(a) Emile Durkheim

(b) Karl Marx

(c) M. Mauss

(d) Max Weber

78. ‘Whilst those who own and control the forces of production, including labour, may have a rational perception of the relationship between their, aims and the ways of accomplishing them, those who are subordinate do not.’ Which concept do you think is implied in the above statement of Karl Marx?

(a) Alienation

(b) Praxis

(c) False consciousness

(d) Social revolution

79. The family is a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood, or adoption; constituting a single household, interacting and intercommunicating with each other in their respective social role of husband and wife, mother and father, brother and sister; creating a common culture’. Who defined family in this way?

(a) L.H. Morgan

(b) Maclver and Page

(c) E.W. Burgess and H. J. Locke

(d) Park and Burgess

80. Who defined family as a ‘group of persons whose relations to one another are based upon consanguinity and who are therefore kin to one another.’?

(a) J. Goody

(b) Kingsley Davis

(c) Maclver and Page

(d) L.H. Morgan

81. Who made a distinction between extended and polygamous families?

(a) Bell and Vogel

(b) Park and Burgess

(c) G.P. Murdock

(d) J. Goody

82. Who wrote ‘An Essay on the History of Civil Society,’ 1767 which represents a systematic developmental sociology?

(a) John S. Mill

(b) C. Wright Mills

(c) Adam Ferguson

(d) Aristotle

83. A perpetual state of hostility between two corporate groups, marked by homicide or violence whenever members of the groups meet is best understood by the term

(a) Conflict

(b) War

(c) Feud

(d) Competition

84. From among the foreign groups mentioned below, identify the one among which parallel cousin marriage is permitted.

(a) The Greeks

(b) The Israelis

(c) The Arabs

(d) The Nepalis

85. ‘Fief is a term associated with the notion of feudalism. Though it has various meanings, what is the one accepted in feudalism?

(a) Land

(b) Revenue

(c) Military service

(d) None of these

86. Who introduced the term folkways into sociological literature?

(a) W.G. Sumner

(b) Graham Wallas

(c) B. Malinowski

(d) Radcliffe Brown

87. A view of sociology which emphasises the importance of the analysis of the form of a social relationship and the comparative study of cases which differ whilst the form remains constant ______ is

(a) Formalism

(b) Symbolic interactionism

(c) Comparative sociology

(d) Synthetic view of sociology

88. Identify the correct group of sociologists associated with the formal school of sociology.

(a) George Simmel, Alfred Vierkandt, Von Weiese

(b) George Simmel, Herbert Blumer, Von Weiese

(c) Max Weber, Alfred Vierkandt, Von Weiese

(d) Emile Durkheim, George Simmel, Von Weiese

89. Identify the school to which the following sociologists belong-Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, Freidrich Pollock, Karl Wittfogel, Leo, Lowenthal, J. Habermas.

(a) Formal school

(b) Frankfurt school

(c) Synthetic school

(d) Chicago school

90. Who is popularly known as an ‘armchair anthropologist’?

(a) Sir James George Frazer

(b) Bronislaw Malinowski

(c) A.R. Radcliffe Brown

(d) Max Gluckman

91. Who understood religion as ‘a propitiation or conciliation of powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and human life’?

(a) Sir James Frazer

(b) Emile Durkheim

(c) Bronislaw Malinowski

(d) Karl Marx

92. Who wrote the books The Golden Bough and Totemism and Exogamy?

(a) Sir James Frazer

(b) Radcliffe Brown

(c) Evans Pritchard

(d) Karl Marx

93. Who made a distinction between manifest function and latent function?

(a) Radcliffe Brown

(b) Max Weber

(c) Robert K. Merton

(d) Karl Marx

94. Activities which contribute to the survival of social system patterns are known as eufunctions. What are dysfunctions? Activities

(a) Which contribute to the disturbance of the social system patterns?

(b) Which hinder the organism’s adaptation to the social system patterns?

(c) Both a and b

(d) Neither a nor b

95. The antecedents of functional orientations in sociology, it is said, are illustrated by a dictum of Voltaire, to the effect that if there were no God it would be necessary for man to invent one; meaning that Voltaire regarded belief in God as functionally indispensable to man. Who according to you provided a real impetus to functionalism in sociology?

(a) Comte and Spencer

(b) Marx and Weber

(c) Parsons and Shils

(d) None of the above

96. Durkheim was the first to establish ‘functionalism’ as a distinct approach in sociology. Identify the correct group of sociologists, who further contributed to this approach?

(a) Malinowski, Radcliffe brown, Merton, Parsons

(b) Weber, Marx, Dukheim, Parsons

(c) Merton, Parsons, Dahrendorf, Gluckman

(d) Parsons, Durkheim, Merton, Frazer

97. He was instrumental in establishing an approach which emphasised the importance of analyzing primitive societies as socio- cultural wholes, accounting for institutions in terms of their relations to other institutions in the same society and their significance in satisfying and meeting the basic needs, notably the biological needs, of individual members. Who was he?

(a) Bronislaw Malinowski

(b) Emile Durkheim

(c) Radcliffe Brown

(d) Evans Pritchard

98. The distinction between social morphology and social physiology was made by

(a) Radcliffe Brown

(b) Emile Durkheim

(c) Robert K. Merton

(d) Wiibert E. Moore

99. Adaptation, goal attainment, integration and latency are

(a) Functional prerequisites

(b) Functional imperatives

(c) Functional alternatives

(d) Functional universals

100. The fulfilment of broadest conditions which are necessary to a system’s existence (and which therefore prevent its termination), such as the socialisation of new members, a shared system of communication, and methods of assigning individual to roles can be referred to as

(a) Functional imperatives

(b) Functional alternatives

(c) Functional prerequisites

(d) Functional universals


51.(c) 52. (c) 53. (b) 54. (c) 55. (c)

56. (c) 57. (a) 58^d) 59. (d) 60. (c)

61.(a) 62. (a) 63 (a) 64. (a) 65. (a)

66. (a) 67. (a) 68. (c) 69. (b) 70. (a)

71.(a) 72. (b) 73. (a) 74. (b) 75. (a)

76. (a) 77. (a) 78. (c) 79. (c) 80. (b)

81.(c) 82. (c) 83. (c) 84. (c) 85. (a)

86. (a) 87. (a) 88. (a) 89. (b) 90. (a)

91.(a) 92. (a) 93. (c) 94. (c) 95. (a)

96. (a) 97. (a) 98. (a) 99. (b) 100. (c)

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