122 Short Questions on Botany

1. Who coined the term chromosome?

Waldeyer (1888) was the man who coined term chromosome.

2. What is meant by Ploidy?


The total number of chromosomes present in cell of an organism is called Ploidy.

3. What are the symbols for haploid and diploid?

Symbol for haploid is X or n and symbol for diploid is 2X or 2n.

4. What is the difference between centromere and chromomere?


Centromere is the primary constriction where as chromomere refers to bead like structures on the chromosome.

5. What is meant by arm ratio in a chromosome?

The ratio of length between the long arm and short arm in chromosome is said to be the arm ratio.

6. Name different types of aneuploidy?


These are monosomy, nullisomy, trisomy and tetrasomy.

7. Distinguish between autopolyploid and allopolyploid?

In Autopolyloid there is increase in the number of same set of chromosomes where as in Allopolyploid there is increase in the number of chromosomes of different types in the same individual.

8. Name one morphological and one chromosomal character of a Down’s syndrome?


The facial appearance will be mongoloid, neck is webbed. Chromosomally there is trisomy in chromosome No. 21.

9. Mention the chromosome abnormality in Klienfelter’s syndrome? Here the individuals have one extra X chromosome (XXY).

10. What is a nucleosome?

Nucleosome refers to the chromosome model proposed by Woodcock.


11. Name any two unusual chromosomes?

Polytene chromosomes and lambrush chromosomes are the two types of unusual chromosomes

12. What is an Isochromosome? An Isochromosome is one in which both the amis of the same chromosome will have similar genes.

13. Mention arty two differences between DNA and RNA?


The sugar in DNA is deoxiribose whereas it is ribose in RNA. DNA has a double helical structure while RNA has single helix

14. Distinguish between a nucleotide and a nucleoside?

Sugar, phosophate and nitrogen base will constitute a neculear type whiie sugar and nitrogen base will constitute a nucleoside.

15. Name the nitrogen bases in DNA and RNA?

The nitrogen bases in DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine. In RNA the nitrogen bases are Adenine, Guanine, cytosine and Urasil.

16. Name the three models proposed for DNA replication in eukaryotes? These models are conservative method, semi conservative method and dispersive method.

17. Name the different types of RNA?

These are mRNA, tRNA (sRNA), rRNA and Genetic RNA

18. What is a codon?

The codon is a triplet of nucleotides containing message for the coding of one amino acid.

19. Define the terms transcription and translation?

Transcription refers to synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template while translation refers to the assembling of amino acids based on the nucleotide sequence present in mRNA.

20. What is a peptide linkage?

The bond or the link formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid with the elimination of a water molecule is called a peptide link.

21. What is genotype?

The sum total of the genetic material inherited by an individual is called genotype.

22. What is phenotype?

The morphological expression of the genotype is called the phenotype.

23. Distinguish between heritable and non heritable variations? Heritable variations influence the genetic material and hence can be transferred to the subsequent generations whereas non heritable variations do not effect the germplasm hence cannot be transferred to the next generations.

24 Name the three scientists who rediscovered Mendel’s laws of inheritance?

These are De Vries, Tschermark and Correns.

25. What is a monohybrid?

An individual which is a hybrid for one character (for a pair of genes) is called a monohybrid.

26. Define an allele?

Alternative state of existence of the same gene is called allele.

27. What is meant by pure line?

A pure line is one which always produces the same character on self breed­ing in all generations. .

28. What is erythroblastosis foetalis?

This is disease found in the foetus when an Rh negative woman bears a child from an Rh positive man. Here RBC’s get degraded.

29. What are the difference between an allosome and an autosome? Allosome refers to XX chromosomes where autosome refers to the remain­ing chromosome that carry non sexual characters.

30. Human females are called homogametic. Why?

Human females produce only one kind of a gamete (all eggs carry only the X chromosome for sex) hence they are called homogametic.

31. Define sex linked inheritance?

The pattern of inheritance in which a particular character is linked to one of the sex chromosomes is called sex linked inheritance.

32. Why hemophilia is called a bleeder’s disease?

In these disease even a small wound leads to uncontrolled bleeding, hence it is said to be bleeder’s disease. There is coagulation of blood on exposure to air.

33. Which colours cannot be distinguished by colour blind people? Colour blind people cannot distinguish between red and green colours.

34. What is the different between Protanopia and Deuteranopia?

Red colour blindness is called protanopia and green colour blindness is called Deuteranopia.

35. Name the different types of meristems based on location?

These are apical meristems, intercalary meristems and lateral meristems.

36. Why is parencyma called the ground tissue?

These is the first tissue to mature from a meristemacic tissue subsequently other tissues get differentiated from this. Hence, it is called the ground tissue.

37. Name the mechanical tissues in plant?

These are Sclerenchyma, Collenchyma and Xylem.

38. List any one similarity and two differences between xylem and collenchyma?

Both Xylem and Collenchyma are mechanical tissues.

Xylem is lignified, while collenchyma is not.

Xylem is dead tissue, while collenchyma is living tissue.

39. List the various types of sclereids?

These are Asterosclereids, Macrosclereids, Brachysclereids, Osteosclereids and Bizarresclereids.

40. Distinguish between a wood fibre and a bast fibre?

A wood fibre is found in xylem while a bast fibre is found in phloen.

41. Name the various types of wall thickenings in xylem? These are annular, spiral, scalariform, reticulate, pitted etc.

42. What is a pit (with reference to xylem)?

A pit is a small pour or aperture found in xylem elements.

43. Distinguish between tracheids and vessels?

Tricheids have oblique cross walls while there are no cross walls in vessels.

44. Name the components of phloem tissue?

Serve tubes, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.

45. What is the difference between cork cambium and fascicular cambium?

Cork cambium orgmates in the cortex and gives raise to cork tissue where as fascicular cambium originates in the vascular cylinder and give raise to secondary vascular tissues.

46. What is an annual ring?

The secondary xylem that is formed during the course of 1 year due to the activity of fascicular cambium is known as an annual ring.

47. What are Casparian thickenings?

The thickenings present on the radial and tangential walls of endodermal cells are known as Casparian thickenings.

48. List two differences between root anatomy and stem anatomy?

In root anatomy the xylem is exerch and vascular bundles are radial whereas in stem anatomy the xylem is endarch and vascular bundles are collateral.

49. List the differences between dicot root anatomy and monocot root anatomy?

In dicot root the xylem is tetrach and pith is very narrow while in monocot root the xylem is polyarch and wide pith is present.

50. What is the main difference between isobilateral leaf and dorsivental leaf in anatomy?

In Isobilateral leaf the mesophyll is undifferentiated where as in the dorsivental leaf the mesophyll is differentiated into palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma.

51. Define imbibitions?

The obserption of liquid by the particles of solids without forming a solution is known as Imbibitions.

52. Define diffusion?

The tendency of the molecules of a liquid, solid or gas to get evenly dis­tributed throughout the available space is called diffusion.

53. What is DPD?

In a region of less concentration of particles there is deficit for pressure and it is known as Diffusion Pressure Deficit.

54. Define Osmosis?

The movement of molecules of a solvent from the region of higher concen­tration to the region of lower concentration across a differentially permeable membrane is known as Osmosis.

55. List any two differences between diffusion and osmosis?

In diffusion there is migration of molecules of liquid, solid or gas, whereas in osmosis there is migration of only liquid.

The molecules migrate in the available space, whereas in osmosis the migration is across a differentially permeable membrane.

56. Name the major components of water potential?

There are three major components in water potential these are Matric potential, solute potential and pressure potential.

57. Name the stages of plasmolysis?

These are incipient plasmolysis, evident plasmolysis and final plasmolysis.

58. Distinguish between passive absorption and active absorption?

In passive absorption respiratory energy is not utilized while in active absorption there is utilization of respiratory energy.

59. What is a crescograph?

These are an electric probe attached to a galvanometer used for measuring the electrical impulses of cells.

60. Define root pressure?

The hydrostatic pressure built up by water in the outer boundary of the stele due to continuous absorption is known as root pressure.

61. Name the major aspects of transpiration pull theory?

These are cohesion of water molecules continuity of water column within the plant and transpiration pull.

62. Define transpiration?

The phenomenon of loss of water in the form of vapour from the aerial parts of the plant body is known as transpiration.

63. Define Guttation?

The physical loss of water in the form of drops from the aerial parts of the plant body is known as Guttation.

64. Distinguish between transpiration and Guttation?

In transpiration water is lost in form of vapour whereas in guttation water is lost in the form of water drops.

Transpiration is physiological loss of water whereas guttation is physical loss of water.

65. Name the types of transpiration?

Stomatal transpiration, cuticular transpiration and lenticular transpiration.

66. Name any two advantages of transpiration?

It prevents excessive accumulation of water in the plants

It helps in the absorption of water by creating a suction force

69. Name any two theories regarding the mechanism of translocation of sol­utes?

Diffusion theory and Munch’s mass flow hypothesis

70. Define Photosynthesis?

The preparation of organic food by green plants utilizing solar energy and combining together carbon dioxide and water is known as photosynthesis.

71. What is a thylakoid?

The lamellae of the chloroplasts are packed in the form of bundles and these bundles are called thylokoids.

72. What is meant by photophosphorylation?

Sysnthsis of molecules of ATP from ADP utilizing solar energy is known as photophosphorylation.

73. What is the role of light in light reaction?

Light provides the energy packets called photons necessary for the produc­tion of molecules of ATP.

74. What is the difference between two photosystems (in photosynthesis)? Photosystem I absorbs light at 700 nm, whereas photosystem II absorbs light at 680 nm.

75. What is the main difference between cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation.

In cyclic photophosphorylation only PS I participates whereas in noncyclic photophosphorylation both PS I and PS II participate.

76. What is meant by Emerson’s effect?

The enhancement of rate of the photosynthesis under the influence of two wave lengths of light is known as Emerson’s Effect.

77. Why Rubp should be regenerated in Calvin cycle?

Regeneration is necessary to continuously accept the entry of six molecules of carbon dioxide.

78. Define of law limiting factors?

When a physiological process is conditioned by a number of factors the rate of the process is conditioned by that factor which is available in the list.

79. Which are the three cardinal points of temperature when it is influencing a process?

Minimum, optimum and maximum are the three cardinal points.

80. Distinguish between respiration and breathing?

Respiration is a physiological process while breathing is a physical process.

81. Distinguish between respiration and combusion?

In respiration there is gradual or step wise degradation of the respiratory fuel whereas in the combusion the fuel is burnt at a time.

82. Define RQ?

The ratio between the amount of carbon dioxide released and the amount of oxygen used is known as Respiratory Quotient.

83. Differentiate between anaerobic respiration and fermentation?

In Anaerobic respiration the substrate is intracellular whereas in fermenta­tion the substrate is extracellular.

84. Name the various steps in aerobic breakdown of glucose?

These are Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and terminal oxidation.

85. Distinguish between oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation?

In oxidative phosphorylation the energy for the synthesis of molecules of ATP comes by the oxidation of the substrate while in photophosphorylation the energy comes from solar radiation.

86. Define growth?

Irreversible increase in size is known as growth.

87. Name the phases of growth?

Phase of cell division, phase of cell elongation and phase of cell maturation.

88. What is grand period of growth?

The three phases of growth (phase of cell division, phase of cell elongation and phase of cell maturation) together constitute the grand period of growth.

89. What is growth curve?

The pattern of growth when plotted against the time results in a sigmoid curve and this is known as the growth curve.

90. Name the external factors which influence growth? These are light, temperature, water supply and oxygen.

91. Name any four phytohormones?

Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins and Ethylene.

92. Define apical dominance?

The ability of the apical bud to suppress the lateral buds is known as apical dominance.

93. Give the chemical names of any two auxins? Auxentriolic acid and Auxeniolonic acid.

94. Name the fungus which yields Gibberellins? Gibbrella fujikorii (= Fusarium moniliforme)

95. What is Parthenocarpy?

The phenomenon of development of fruit without fertilization is known as parthenocarpy.

96. What is an abscission layer?

The development of a layer of cells to separate the old portions from the young portions in a plant body is called the abscission layer.

97. Define a species?

A species is the lowest stable unit in a taxonomic heirarchy.

98. What is an ecosystem?

The ecosystem is a basic functional unit of organisms and there environment interacting with each other.

99. What is the difference between Autecology and Synecology?

In autecology individuals are the units of study whereas in synecology groups of organisms constitute the units of study.

100. Define a population?

A population is a group of individuals belonging to a single species

101. What are the major divisions of biosphere?

Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Atmosphere

102. Name any three components of pond ecosystem?

Producers, consumers and decomposers

103. Why there is leaf fall in deciduous trees during summer?

To prevent excessive rate of transpiration during summer

104. What is the difference between a food chain and food web?

In a food chain there is only a single link between one trophic level and other whereas in a food web at each level there are several links constituting a network.

105. What is an ecological pyramid?

The relationship between the different levels of trophic organization is represented in the form of a pyramid (with a wide base and a narrow top) is known as ecological pyramid.

106. Define the term biogeochemical cycle?

The circulation of essential elements of life from the environment to the organisms and from the organisms back to the environment in a circular fashion is known as biogeochemical cycle.

107. Name two problems of population explosion?

Food problem and space problem.

108. Define pollution?

The presence of new extraneous liquid, solid or gas in a quantity more than the normal which affects life is known as Pollution.

109. Name the types of pollution?

Soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, radioactive pollution and noise pollution

110. Which is the unit of measurement of sound?


111. What is soil conservation?

The conservation of the top layer of the soil (so that it is not eroded) to support the growth of vegetation is known as soil conservation.

112. What is strip cropping?

An agricultural practice of growing plants in suitable strips in the field

113. What is contour farming?

Cultivation of the crops along the contour of the lands is known as contour forming.

114. What is basin listing?

Formation of small basins along the contour of the land with the help of a basin lister is known as basin listing

115. What is sylviculture?

Planned development of forest growing required species is known as sylviculture.

116 List any two advantages of social forestry?

It reduces pressure on natural forest.

It provides the necessary fire wood and fodder by growing required types of plants.

117. What is in situ conservation?

The conservation of rare species in their original habitat is known as in situ conservation

118 What is the difference between a National park and a sanctuary?

In a sanctuary the aim is to conserve a single species whereas in a national park the aim is to conserve the entire habitat

119. What is ex situ conservation?

The conservation endangered species in green houses, glass houses (plants) and in zoos (animals) is known as ex situ conservation.

120. Name any three sanctuaries in Karnataka?

Bandipur, Nagarahole and Ranganathittu

121. Name any two tiger reserves in India?

Bandipur in karnataka and Corbett in Uttar Pradesh.

122. Name any two wild life protection acts?

Madras Wild Elephant preservation act (1873), The Wild birds and animals protection act (1912).