1. What was the essence of the shift in the British attitude after 1818?

The shift in the British attitude after 1818 was to establish itself as a paramount power in India.

The Company so far was only a commercial organization.

But after 1818 it wanted to project itself as a power that succeeded the Mughal Empire.


2. What was the British economic policy towards India at the initial stage? When was there a change in the economic policy?

At the initial stage the economic policy of the British towards India was to procure as much wealth as possible and transfer the same to Britain.

After the Industrial Revolution in England there was a change in the economic policy.

Now the policy was to transform India into a country that supplied raw materials and to dump in India the finished goods produced in the factories of Britain.


3. What were the experiments of Warren Hastings in land- revenue? What was the main source of India’s wealth?

The land-revenue experiments made by Warren Hastings constituted the Ijaradari system.

He introduced the system of revenue-farming for one year, and later on a five-year basis.

The main source of India’s wealth at that time constituted the land- revenue.


4. state two British officials who were engaged in a debate over the revenue settlement to be introduced in the country? With what motive did the British introduce Permanent Settlement?

Alexander Dow and Thomas Law were the two British officials engaged in a debate over the revenue settlement to be introduced in India.

By introducing settlement of a permanent nature the British wanted to ensure improvement in agriculture.

The greater yield would make possible extraction of more revenue surplus.


5. Who were the three parties to the Permanent Settlement? Who were the ‘absentee landlords’?

The three parties to the Permanent Settlement were:

(A). The Company’s government

(B). zamindars


(C). ryots.

The ‘absentee landlords’ were those who purchased the estates through auction.

But they had no interest in the soil of the land. Practically speaking the ‘absentee landlords’ was nothing but gamblers in land.

6 Where was the Ryotwari Settlement first introduced? With whom did the Company settle land under the Ryotwari system?


In the territories of Madras, Bombay and Sindh the British introduced the Ryotwari Settlement.

Under the Ryotwari Settlement the government settled the land directly with the ryot or cultivators.

7. Where was the Mahalwari Settlement introduced by the Company? How the settlement differed from the Permanent Settlement?

The Mahalwari Settlement was introduced in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh.

Where the Permanent Settlement differed with the Mahalwari Settlement was that in the latter instead of zaminder the settlement was made village-wise.

Again, as in Permanent Settlement the revenue was not fixed permanently in the Mahalwari Settlement.

8. State two important factors responsible for the decay of the indigenous industry?

The most important factor responsible for the decay of indigenous industry was the introduction of railways.

Free movements of goods, as a result of the railway network, made the villages dependent on the articles brought from outside.

Another factor responsible was the British policy of deindustrialization.

9 What do you understand by the term Industrial Revolution?

In England, around mid-eighteenth century machines began to take over some of the work of men in the production of goods and commodities.

Thus it may be said that the Industrial Revolution literally was the beginning of the machine age.