According to Thorndike, learning consists of bond formation which means that connection between situations and responses is strengthened through learning. This theory of learning also explains that the bonds between situations and responses are strengthened by satisfaction and weakened by annoyance. This theory is fundamentally physiological in nature.

But Thorndike’s theory of learning is severely criticized by different schools of psychologists. The behaviorists deny the law of effect and claim that frequency is the most important Principle of learning which helps in all kinds of retention.

The gestaltian school criticizes the Laws of Thorndike oh the ground that learning is not merely the organization of independent units of behavior and there is no building up process like the formation. The psychologists of this school contend that the relation between situation and response already exists in an experience which is perceived as a whole.

On the whole, it may be concluded that although the Laws of Learning enunciated by Thorndike are found to be much physiological and subjected to so many limitations, they have ample practical truth and utility in the early learning systems. The principle of exercise, readiness and effect has a lot of importance and feasibility for effective learning.