The laws of grouping, in general, propose how certain elements in the perceptual field of an individual go together. The following are some important laws of grouping.
The Law of Proximity (Nearness):
According to the law of proximity or nearness, elements may be grouped according to their perceived closeness in time or space. In other words, elements that appear nearer together tend to grouped together. Thus, due to the law of proximity, the eight lines given below are seen as four pairs of lines.
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The Law of Similarity:
The law of similarity proposes that with the proximity among elements being equal, perceptual elements that .are similar in some respect tend to be grouped together.
The Law of Good Continuation:
This law proposes that elements that appear to follow a particular direction, such as a straight line or a simple curve, are readily perceived as forming a group. It is the tendency to perceive stimuli as a part of a continuous pattern.
The Law of Closure:
The law of closure is one of the important laws of perceptual organization. This law proposes that within limits, physically incomplete figures tend to be perceived as complete figures or as meaningful wholes. In other words, in closure, grouping occurs in a way that favors perception of the more enclosed or complete figure.
The Law of Common Fate:
According to the law of common fate, elements that move in the same direction are perceived as together. This is a kind of grouping on the basis of similarity, but applied to moving objects. Thus, a group of runners or a flock of birds when seen moving in the same direction appear as groups or units.