a. Introduction:

The constitutional position, powers and functions of the President of the Indian Union are laid down in Part V of the Indian Constitution. He is the supreme executive of the Indian Union. He exercises his power either directly or through officers under him. He is also the supreme command of the defence forces. The powers of the President may be classified under the following heads: executive, legislative, financial, judicial and special powers.

b. Executive Powers and Functions:

All the ministers including the Prime Minister are appointed by him. And they hold office during the pleasure of the President. The President also appoints the Chief justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court: The Chairman and the members of the Union Public Service Commission are also appointed by him. In short, all administrative functions are done in the name of the President.


c. Legislative Powers and Functions:

The President has the power to give his assent or withhold assent and return the bill to the House from which the bill was sent to him. When the Parliament is not in session, the President may promulgate Ordinances. Besides, the Parliament is summoned, prorogued and dissolved by the President. The President also nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and also a few members to the Lok Sabha.

d. Financial Powers:

A finance bill cannot be placed before the Parliament unless it obtains the recommendations of the President He also causes to place the annual budget to the Parliament.


e. Judicial Powers and Functions:

The President has the power to grant pardons, respite or remissions of punishment. He may also reduce the sentence of punishment. The President may also consult the Supreme Court in constitutional matters or any other matter involving question of law.

f. Emergency Powers:

Part XVIII of the Indian Constitution arms the President with enormous powers to deal with extraordinary situation Such as : External aggression, armed rebellion, failure of constitutional machinery in the States. Again, if the President of India is satisfied that the financial stability or credit of India or any part of India has been badly shaken, then he can proclaim a financial emergency. However, proclamation of emergency due to any reason by the President must have to be approved by the Parliament within one month.