Parliament consists of the President and the two Houses, namely, the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
The Lok Sabha: Its maximum strength is 545 (Not more than 525 from the States to be elected directly. A candidate for membership of the Lok Sabha must be a citizen of India and not less than 30 years of age. The normal term of the House is five years. The House can, however, be dissolved earlier by the President.
The said period may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate.
Members of the House elect the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker from among themselves. The Speaker acts as the presiding officer of the House and, in his absence, the Deputy Speaker acts for him.
The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body not subject to dissolution, elected indirectly, and its total strength cannot exceed 250. Twelve members, who have distinguished themselves in literature, arts, science or social service, are nominated by the President.
The remaining seats are distributed among the States and Union Territories. The representatives of the States are elected by the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States concerned by the method of single transferable vote. The representatives of Union Territories are to be chosen in such a manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.
A candidate for membership of the Rajya Sabha must be a citizen of India and he should not be less than 25 years of age. One-third of the members must retire once in two years, and their places are filled by fresh election. The Vice-President of India is the ex- officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
Relations between the Two Houses of Parliament. If a non-money bill is passed by one House, and the other House rejects it or the two Houses do not agree to the amendments, the President may summon a joint meeting of both Houses to resolve the deadlock. The decision of the majority prevails. As for money bills, every such bill must be introduced in the Lok Sabha.
It cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. Any such bill cannot be rejected by the Rajya Sabha though it may delay it for 14 days at the most. The Cabinet, which is the real working executive, is responsible to the Lok Sabha only.