10 Agencies of United Nations and It’s Achievements are as follows:
(a) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation:
This organisation came into being on 4th November, 1946. Almost all the countries which are the members of the U.N., are also the members of the U.N.E.S.C.O. The General Assembly formulates the policies and an executives committee of 30 members supervises its programme. This organisation has also a secretariat, which is headed by a Director-General. It has an international staff. Its head office is located at Paris.
Purpose and achievements of U.N.E.S.C.O:
The purpose of U.N.E.S.C.O. is “to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of world without distinction of language or religion by the Charter of the United Nations.”
The U.N.E.S.C.O. is working for scientific, cultural development of backward countries. U.N.E.S.C.O. called many Scientific and Cultural and Educational Conferences. U.N.E.S.C.O. spends more than twenty lakh dollars yearly on the development of backward countries. It gives about 450 scholarships yearly.
(b) World Health Organisation:
On 22nd July 1946, the Economic and Social Council convened International Health Conference. In this conference the constitution of World Health Organisation was adopted. The organisation was formed on 7th April, 1948 when 26 members of the U.N.O. ratified its charter. This organisation started its work from 1st September, 1948.
Purpose and achievements:
The main purpose of the W.H.O.is the attainment of the highest possible standard of health by all the people of the world. To achieve this purpose, this Organisation has sent experts to almost every country of the world, so that they may be able to help the governments by organising health services and in training the officials engaged in medical and technical pursuits and with the help of the material given by the U.N. Children Fund may be able to exhibit new techniques to cure diseases.
In 1990-91 more than 2,000 scholarships were given by the W.H.O. to doctors, nurses, Sanity Engineers and other people for receiving training in other countries. The W.H.O. has rendered a commendable service in eradicating malaria, leprosy and infectious skin diseases like yaws, to some extent.
More than three hundred and thirty million people got rid of malaria till 1st April 1976. After that the eradication of these diseases has been the main concern of W.H.O. Small-pox have been practically eradicated from India due to the efforts of U.N.O. Yaws is such a dangerous disease that it makes a man cripple and invalid.
The W.H.O. launched a vigorous campaign against this disease, with the result that the disease was reduced from 20 per cent to less than 0.10 per cent. In all more than 28.5 million people were examined and penicillin was administered to 38 million people. Besides, this Organisation has rendered a commendable service in making efforts to eradicate small-pox, cholera, eye tricoma, plague and tuberculosis from the world.
W.H.O. has given economic aid to many countries for Community Water Supply in their cities, because impure water causes many ailments. It has established many Research Institutes for taking up research work in diseases and started more than 175 Research Projects. It has compiled many books on medicines and published them in different languages of the world.
Organisation of W.H.O.:
Its headquarters are located at Geneva in Switzerland. It has an International Health Assembly which is represented by the member nations. Its Chief Board acts as executive of this body. Upto 1st March 1991 the membership of International Health Assembly was 159. Its executive has a membership of 18. A Director-General of the Secretariat looks after its daily functioning.
(c) International Labour Organisation, Purpose:
This Organisation came into existence on 11th April, 1920, when its constitution was adopted in the form of the part 13 of the treaty of Versailles. Previously, it was an important institution of the League of Nations. Later on this was made an agency of the U.N.
The purpose of the I.L.O. is to promote social justice, to maintain lasting peace. This organisation tries to improve the living conditions of the labourers with the help of international efforts and improves the economic and social stability of working class.
In order to International minimum standard, this organisation holds conferences of the representatives of the member-states, labourers and the capitalists.
I.L.O. prepares drafts for the benefit of the labourers on the following points:
(2) Working hours;
(3) Minimum age for work;
(4) In case of accident, compensation to workers;
(5) Social Insurance;
(6) Provision for the profession;
(7) Freedom to labourers to form Union;
(8) Leave with pay;
(9) Industrial security;
(10) Labour Inspection;
(11) Conditions of work for different categories of labourers. This organisation has included many international agreements in the field of labour.
This Organisation renders technical help to the government of member states at a large scale. In order to take up research work in the problems relating to the labour, an international institution was established on 14th ‘ 1961. This Organisation has sent many experts to foreign countries, with the result that the production in those countries has increased considerably.
Bura, Ceylon and Nicaragua have been specially benefited with this scheme. This Organisation has established an international centre of technical and employment training at Turin in Italy. This Organisation gives technical assistance to the member nations sends experts for this purpose.
Organisation of I.L.O.:
This Organisation has its headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland. Its organisation is as under: Its sovereignty is with the General Conference which meets annually. Delegates from different states take part in this conference.
Every delegation is represented by the representatives of the member country, one representative of the Mill Owners and one representative of the labour. It has an executive of 40 members. Out of the 20 representatives of the governments and ten each of the Mill Owners and labourers. Its office is headed by a Director- General.
(d) Food and Agriculture Organisation:
This Organisation was established on l6th October, 1945.
Its organisations is as under:
A conference directs the activities of this organisation, which is represented by all the member-nations. During its by-yearly session, a council of 27 members performs the administrative functions. A Director-General is the President of the International Food and Agriculture Organisation. Its head office is at Rome.
Purpose and Functions of Food and Agriculture Organisation:
The purpose of this organisation is to raise the standard of nutritious food and living. This organisation makes efforts to enhance the production of arms, forests, fishery and food stuff and also their equitable distribution.
It also improves the condition of the villagers. This organisation makes arrangement for the preservation and proper supply of nutritious food and other stables and also checks the social erosion by planting trees. It helps the government in the development of its land and basic resources. It encourages the consumption of their goods by establishing an international market.
This organisation started a Freedom from Hunger Campaign on 1st July, 1960. The aim of this campaign is to seek assistance of governmental and nongovernmental organisations, industry and trade and individual citizens of all the countries in achieving freedom from hunger for under developed countries.
It appeals to the countries were surplus in food stuff to send their surplus to the deficit states. For example, when India faced food shortage during 1965-67, many nations rushed food supplies to India on the appeal of this organisation. It extended all help to Bangladesh in 1972 in meeting food crisis.
It has started 550 projects in various countries for the increase in food and agriculture production. It has sent its experts in many backward countries and it has granted fellowships to impart training to the People in order to help them to increase the production. Besides, in order to solve the acute problem of food and agriculture, it has established many Study Centers, Committees, Councils and Commissions.
(e) World Bank or International Bank for Reconstruction and Development:
This organisation grew out of a conference at Brettonwoods Hamphire, which was held during the Second World War. Its articles of agreement came into force in 1945.
The purpose of this organisation is:
(1) To help in the reconstruction of the territories which were destroyed during Second World War;
(2) To give monetary assistance to less developed states, for this purpose other countries are encouraged to invest capital in the increase of production in less developed
(3) To encourage balanced development of international trade.
It advances loans for the reconstruction of industries and to facilitate economic development. The help of the Bank is not only limited to advance of money or give its guarantee. For example, it has helped to a great extent in the settlement of Canal Water Dispute between India and Pakistan. The World Bank has also helped in the settlement of compensation which was to be given by United Arab Republic with the result of the nationalization of Suez Canal.
Besides this the World Bank renders technical assistance on problems relating to the development and others receiving loans. Co-operating with the agencies of the U.N.O., World Bank often sends Economic Survey Missions for the help of those governments who wants to sturdy their resources and intends to formulate long term development plans.
The fund of the World Bank is collected through the purchase of shares by the member-nations. By 1986 it had advanced loans to many developing nations.
Its head office is at Washington. A Board of Directors represented by all the members is the in charge of the Bank. It holds an annual meeting. During the period in between the annual meetings, its powers are exercised by 18 managing or Acting Directors. The Bank has also its own President.
(f) International Finance Corporation:
This was established on July 24, 1956. This works as an assistant agency with the International Reconstruction Development Bank. Its aim is to promote development programmes in Private enterprises of back ward countries by investing capital without any guarantee from the government. Its head office is at Washington.
It extended many loans to backward and under-developed countries till 1986. This Corporation gave monetary assistance to the industries of 24 countries of Asia, Latin-America or South America, Africa, Europe, Middle East and Australia.
(g) International Monetary Fund:
No country can seek membership of International Reconstruction and Development Bank without having the membership of International Monetary Fund. It gives sufficient help- for the development of International Trade. It removes the difficulties of foreign exchange of currency, arising out of trade among the nations.
It checks the ups and downs caused due to competition in exchange. It promotes international monetary cooperation and the stabilization of currencies, selling currencies to help members meet foreign payment difficulties. The I.M.F. headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
(h) International Civil Aviation Organisation:
It promotes the safety of international civil aviation, specifies the location of air navigation services, works to reduce the red tape of customs and immigration formalities codifies international air law, and arranges joint financing of air navigation facilities and services. The I.C.A.O. headquarters are located in Montreal, Canada.
(i) Universal Postal Union:
It organizes and improves postal services. Every member agrees to transmit the mail of all other members by the best means used for it is own mail. The U.P.U. headquarters are located in Berne, Switzerland.
(j) International Atomic Energy Agency:
This agency was established on July 20, 1956. It promotes the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, by assisting research, arranging the supply of materials, establishing safety stand and applying safeguards against the diversion of materials to military use.