India is also endowed with rich natural mineral resources, which are being utilized for various developmental programmes. Many of these programmes were taken up in the post independence era. Coal and iron, which are basic minerals for industrial growth of a country, are found in abundance. In addition, other minerals like copper, gypsum, gold, etc., are also found. Figure 2.11 shows the mineral deposits in India. Reserves of non-ferrous metals with the exception of aluminium are not though to meet domestic needs. It is clear that coal will be the country’s primary fuel for years. There are enough deposits of non-cooking coal to meet its requirements unless the initial rate of exploitation increases substantially, or the growth rate of the economy becomes very rapid. The coal reserves are not evenly distributed; the workable coalmines are concentrated in Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Apart from coal, India has lignite reserves in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The Tamil Nadu reserves are being systematically exploited by means of an industrial complex that produces power, fertilizers and briquettes. India is one of the world’s leading iron exporters. The most extensive deposits are found in Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. There are also considerable amounts of chromites and titanium reserves. However, it is now being realized that these minerals can get exhausted if they are not used prudently and thriftily. Petroleum and natural gas have been found not only on land but in estuaries and offshore regions as well. But in view of the finite nature of these resources and the pollution resulting from their excessive use, search for renewable energy sources is continuing.