Sanitation refers to all conditions that create unhealthy conditions, especially with regard to direct and infection and specifically to the drainage and disposal for sewage and refuse from houses. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as the means of collecting and disposing of extra and community liquid wastes in a hygienic way so as not to endanger the health of individuals and the community as a whole. Thus, the basic objective of all the sanitation programmes should be disposal of human excreta and community wastages without endangering the public life. The problem of proper hygiene and sanitation has increased manifold due to higher rates of population growth leading to insanitary conditions. The other limitations in providing the adequate sanitation condition are lack of funds, lack of trained personnel and lack of knowledge about acceptable alternative technologies. All these factors contribute to lowering the satisfactory sanitation service level. Disasters worsen the already inadequate sanitation situation. Certain special measures must be adopted to improve the sanitation condition and to check any spread of epidemic in the aftermath of the disasters like food, cyclone, earthquake etc. This unit deals with the available sanitation means and how to improve the hygienic and sanitary conditions in the emergency situation.