3 different Kinds of Delegation
Delegation can be divided into several categories.
(A) Thus according to its jurisdiction, delegation can be:
(1) Specific i.e. related to particular jobs or area of responsibility such as preparation of balance sheet, installation of a machine; or
(2) General i.e., extended over a broad area such as assisting in the general management of an enterprise, management of personnel, production and so on.
(B) According to the manner of communication, delegation can be-
(1) Verbal i.e., by word of mouth; or
(2) Written i.e., in black and white, which means that duties and authorities are laid down in written words.
(C) On the basis of its direction, delegation can be
(1) Downward (2) upward or (3) lateral.
(1) Downward Delegation:
Generally all delegations are downward i.e., by a superior officer to his subordinates.
(2) Upward Delegation:
Sometimes, however, on the ground of personal incapacity, or lack of suitable power or resource a subordinate may transfer back a part of his job to his superior. In practice some clever, subordinates are in the habit of shirking responsibility by pleading ignorance or giving some other false pretext.
(3) Lateral Delegation:
These are informal arrangements made by the managers concerned. In case of splintered authority (as between three managers of equal rank) two of them can each transfer their respective authorities to the third man who thus gets full power to perform the work.