Short Notes on Verification of Procedures Induction

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When the hypothesis is generalized it requires verification to ascertain that the general proposition is true under all similar circumstances.

The verification of a general proposition makes it a law. Verification means confirmation by appealing to facts. This is done either directly or indirectly.

Direct verification is done either by observation or by experiment. Indirect verification is done either by deduction or by accumulation of evidences.

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In case of indirect verification conclusions are drawn from the hypothesis and compared with real situations. Or else facts are collected or accumulated and compared with the deductions from the hypothesis.

Verification of a general proposition involves some deduction. For here particular conclusions are drawn from general proposition and compared with facts.

When there is more and more confirmation of it, there is more and more acceptance of the hypothesis. That is, adequate objective tests add to the confirmation of the generalization.

Jevon attaches great importance to verification in inductive procedure. For him it is the most essential requirement to ascertain an induction because the facts must be in conformity with the generalization. Since it is done by deduction, Jevon, as already stated above, has attached more fundamentally to deduction.

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Apart from these well-defined stages of inductive procedure philosophy of science gives importance to the idea of a system which can be taken as the next stage of inductive procedure.

That is in advanced branches of science any empirical generalization must be in agreement with the system of prevalent laws. All the generalizations must be making a coherent system and any new discovery must be placed in the system in order of its generality.

The idea of non-instantial hypothesis of finding out higher and higher theories to explain different theories and laws-which are also generalizations-, is gradually becoming more important in advanced branches of science.

The idea is that the empirical laws which explain the facts are not a loose bundle but again grouped under a few higher laws, theories or principles. In this way they make a coherent system in which the mutual interrelations of different generalizations do agree with facts and the advanced theories.

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Thus the inductive procedure aims at establishing a system and order. While the knowledge of facts is established by different generalizations or laws, the laws themselves constitute a unifying system by higher generalizations.

Thus any systematic scientific explanation or induction passes through the above stages which constitute the procedure of induction.

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