Gamete-Intra-fallopian Transfer (GIFT). This is a method in which sperms are artifically introduced directly into the fallopian tube via a minor surgi­cal procedure. This can be performed on women who have atleast one healthy fallopian tube and for certain reasons the fimbriae of the infiindibu- lum of the fallopian tube cannot capture the eggs.

This is also useful in instance where cervical problems prevent conception. In this method sperms which are thoroughly washed and ovaries obtained from the ovary are transferred using a laproscope into the ampulla of the fallopian tube. Within the fallopian tube which is the normal site of fertilization the two gametes fuse and cleavage occurs according to the normal process.

The blastocyst travels down the fallopian tube and gets implanted in the endomentrium of the uterus as a normal process. When compared with IVF and ET, GIFT is a less cost intensive procedure and does not require costly equipments. Here, except for the artificial introduction of ova and sperms into the fal­lopian tube everything else (fertilization and implantation) is a normal process.

143 Mention the stages and one characteristic feature of each in syphilis? Syphilis has the following stages-Primary stage, second stage, third stage and the final stage.


In the first stage soras appear on the body. In the second stage lymph glands become rubbery. The third stage is very destructive and involves visceral organs. The fourth or the final stage involves all parts of the body. Complications include paralysis, blindness etc.