The single most important factor that strengthened the growing bonds of fellowship among the Indians was the agitation of the European community in India against the Ilbert Bill.
The Ilbert Bill case was as follows: In 1873, the British government by an Act had proclaimed that in criminal matters no Indian judge could try an European accused.
This discrimination between the Indians and the Europeans appeared to be inhuman and unjust to the liberal Viceroy Lord Ripon.
Under his instruction Sir Ilbert, the Law Member of the Council, introduced a Bill which sought to abolish the discrimination between the Indians and the Europeans.
This bill of 1883 is popularly known as the ‘Ilbert Bill’. With the publication of the Bill the European community in India burst out in violeat protest.