The main purpose of sanitation is to maintain such an environment which will not affect the public health. Principles of sanitation are:

(a) Collection and conveyance – Remove any waste material – solid, liquid, gaseous.

(b) Interior decoration – Substances which are likely to catch dust should not be placed in the room.

(c) Orientation of the building – orientation should be made to adjust with prevailing natural conditions.


(d) Prevention of dampness

(e) Supply of water


(a) Refuse – Garbage Dry refuse decayed fruits, grass leaves, paper pieces, sweeping vegetables, etc.


(b) Sewage – Liquid waste from the community – Sewage discharge from urinals, urinal stables, industrial waste, storm water (rain water)

(c) Night soil – Human and animal excreta.

(d) Combined sewage – Sanitary sewage plus storm water.

(e) Crude/raw sewage – Sanitary sewage plus storm water.


(f) Dilute/weak sewage – Less suspended solid materials

(g) Fresh sewage

(h) Septic sewage – Sewage which is undergoing the treatment process.

(i) Suliage – Waste water from bath room, kitchen


(j) Residential sewage consists of liquid wastes originating from urinals, latrines, bath rooms, kitchen sinks, wash basins ctc. It is generally foul. This need treatment before disposing.

(k) Drainage – The run resulting from rain storm is called drainage.

(l) Sewer system-Consists of a network of sewer pipes laid in order to carry the sewage from building to the sewage treatment plant.