(i) Globule and Nucule :

The term molten globule (MG) was first coined by A. Wada and M Ohgushi in 1983. It was first found in cytochrome c, which conserves native-like secondary structure content but without the tightly packed protein interior, under low pH and high salt concentration.

For cytochrome c and some other proteins, it has been shown that the molten globule state is a “thermodynamic state” clearly different both from the native and the denatured state, demonstrating for the first time the existence of a third equilibrium (i.e., intermediate) state.

The term “molten globule” is presently extended to include various types of partially folded protein states found in mildly denaturing conditions such as low pH (generally pH = 2), mild denaturant, or high temperature. Molten globules are collapsed and generally have some native-like secondary structure but a dynamic tertiary structure as seen by far and near circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, respectively.


These traits are similar to those observed in the transient intermediate states found during the folding of certain proteins, especially globular proteins that undergo hydrophobic collapse, and therefore the term “molten globule” is also used to refer to certain protein folding intermediates corresponding to the narrowing region of the folding funnel higher in energy than the native state but lower than the denatured state.

The molten globule ensembles sampled during protein folding and unfolding are thought to be roughly similar. The term nucule is derivates of nucleus. The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction. It is commonly the most prominent organelle in the cell.

The nucleus is surrounded by a structure called the nuclear envelope. This membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The cell’s chromosomes are also housed within the nucleus. Chromosomes contain DNA which provides the genetic information necessary for the production of other cell components and for the reproduction of life.

(ii) Rein-deer moss and Peat moss:


Moss is a small, flowerless plant that grows in cool, damp spaces. It is soft to the touch and can be found in thin layers that cover trees, rocks and the perimeter of bodies of water. There are many different species of moss that are specific to certain regions of the world, depending on climate and geography. Though many people disregard it as just another plant, it serves many functions, from medicine to food, and has been utilized throughout history for many other purposes.

The pecies of Cladonia lichen is called reindeer moss because it is a major food source for Arctic caribou. Found all over the world, these lichens are very useful for human and animal consumption.


Reindeer moss can be found in the U.S. from the Arctic down to Florida and as far west as Texas. It also grows in Asia and Europe. It is a ground cover in many boreal forests and humid low alpine regions.


Reindeer moss is a symbiote. The plant is actually the combination of a fungus and a type of algae. Researcher Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month site from tjie UW-Madison Department of Botany states that “reindeer lichen is a form of dual organism where the algal and fungal elements exist in a form of mutualistic symbiosis.”

Peat moss is aged, compressed sphagnum moss. There are dozens of sphagnum moss species. The majority requires constant moisture and cool conditions, unlike tropical Spanish moss. Because sphagnum moss grows in highly acidic waters, peat moss is usually germ free.

Peat moss is highly porous and may hold nearly 100 times its own weight in water. Because of its water-retaining ability and lack of most pathogens, it is ideal for seed-starting mixes or use as a soil amendment. Spanish moss, does not incorporate easily into soil, but does act as an effective mulch, especially for indoor potted plants.