(i) Ensure proper selection fuel-firing equipment, viz. Burners, mechanical stokers etc.

(ii) Ensure correct temperature and pressure of fuel oil at the burner tip as per manufacturers specifications.

(iii) Reduce radiation losses from boilers, furnaces and auxiliary equip- meant by improved thermal insulation. This will also improve thermal insulation. This will also improve the working conditions within the building and eliminate, unnecessary ventilation.

(iv) Employ blow down and water process-heat to preheat the boiler to feed water.


(v) Use of steam and power within the boiler house should be subject to critical scrutiny. For instance, loss of steam from relief valves and other fittings should be minimized.

(vi) Meters for fuel consumption, steam generated and transmitted should be provided and properly maintained.

(vii) Analyse flue gases and try to achieve the optimum percentage of carbon dioxide and oxygen levels.

(viii) In coal-firing, ensure correct pressure of primary air and maintain uni­form thickness of coal bed. Avoid segregation.


(ix) Consideration should be given to waste-heat recovery for heating feed water or combustion air by economizers and recuperates.

(x) Schedule your process operations to avoid fluctuations in boiler loads.

(xi) Avoid excessive blow downs.

(xii) Avoid air infiltration and gas exhilaration.


(xiii) Keep the heat transfer surfaces clean by preventing excessive scale formation and adequate soot blowing.

(xiv) In coal-firing, try to reduce unburnt ash. Adjust speed, feed and air supply to stabilize the flame.

(xv) Do not allow an unstable flame, and prevent the flame form impinging upon surface.

(xvi) A coating of 3mm thick soot on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption by as much as 2.5 per cent.


(xvii) Boilers should be monitored for flue gas losses, radiation losses, incomplete combustion, excess air etc. This can lead to up to 20 per­cent reduction in fuel consumption.