The 15 day UN climate change conference ended on Dec. 15, 2007 with the adoption of a Bali Road map, which is expected to launch negotiations on a crucial international Climate Change regime up to 2009, the Bali Road map have been agreed to by over 180 countries, meeting in Indonesia’s resort Island of Bali. It includes a clear agenda for the key issues to be negotiated up to 2009, including action for adapting to the negative consequences of climate change, ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, ways to deploy climate friendly technology and financing both adaptation and mitigation measures.

The conference of the UN Frame Work Convention on Climate Change was held at Bali to overcome considerable wrangling and produced the Bali Action Plan, a basic but promising road map. It also emphasized that major economy must decide on new actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Bali conference resolution also accepted the scientific evidence and emphasized on the “urgency” for combating climate change.

It also proposed that all countries will need bold initiatives on emission cuts beyond 20/2 when existing Kyoto protocol commitments expire. According to Bali plan, all developed country must adopt “measurable, reportable, and verifiable emission limits and reductions while developing countries can emphasize mitigation rather than emission reduction.

The USA which emits the most GHGs and is a Kyoto Sceptic, obviously felt compelled to endorse the Bali Plan under global moral pressure. The ratification of the Kyoto protocol by the Kevin Rudd government has put Australia on a strong and reasonable course.


The Balo Action plan has provided opportunities for China and India to reduce their carbon footprint and to strive for mitigation without compromising on economic growth.

The UNFCC has agreed, as part of the road map, to help protect and forests through special funding. India, which contributed to key Bali amendments on access to clean technology, can also tap the Adaptation Fund under Kyoto protocol. This provision can fund forestry schemes and generate income for rural and tribal communities.