They are fertile female with developed ovary. Always one queen remains present in one hive. She is guided by a number of attendants. It is 15 to 20 mm in length with short legs and wings. The queen gets fertilize only once in her life span, which is sufficient to fertilize the eggs at the time of laying.
The queen lays fertilized or unfertilized eggs according to her will. Queen lays about 1500 to 2000 eggs in a day. The total weight of 100 eggs is equal to her body weight. In whole life span queen lays about 15,000,000 eggs.
When the queen in a colony looses its egg laying capacity, another worker of the same colony starts feeding on Queen’s diet i.e. royal jelly and develops into a new queen and is provided with the facility of real queen. At the same time the old queen may be driven out, but sometimes some workers object that as to why the mother of the colony be driven out. So ultimately, they also come out with the mother.