The organised sector of Indian money market can be further classified into the following sub-markets:
1. Call Money Market:
The most important component of organised money market is the call money market. It deals in call loans or call money granted for one day. Since the participants in the call money market are mostly banks, it is also called interbank call money market.
The banks with temporary deficit of funds form the demand side and the banks with temporary excess of funds form the supply side of the call money market. The main features of Indian call money market are as follows:
(i) Call money market provides the institutional arrangement for making the temporary surplus of some banks available to other banks which are temporary in short of funds.
(ii) Mainly the banks participate in the call money market. The State Bank of India is always on the lenders’ side of the market.
(iii) The call money market operates through brokers who always keep in touch with banks and establish a link between the borrowing and lending banks.
(iv) The call money market is highly sensitive and competitive market. As such, it acts as the best indicator of the liquidity position of the organised money market.
(v) The rate of interest in the call money market is highly unstable. It quickly rises under the pressures of excess demand for funds and quickly falls under the pressures of excess supply of funds.
(vi) The call money market plays a vital role in removing the day-to-day fluctuations in the reserve position of the individual banks and improving the functioning of the banking system in the country.
2. Treasury Bill Market:
The Treasury bill market deals in treasury bills which are the short-term (i.e., 91, 182 and 364 days) liability of the Government of India. Theoretically these bills are issued to meet the short-term financial requirements of the government.
But, in reality, they have become a permanent source of funds to the government. Every year, a portion of treasury bills are converted into long-term bonds. Treasury bills are of two types: ad hoc and regular.
Ad hoc treasury bills are issued to the state governments, semi-government departments and foreign central banks. They are not sold to the banks and the general public, and are not marketable.
The regular treasury bills are sold to the banks and public and are freely marketable. Both types of ad hoc and regular treasury bills are sold by Reserve Bank of India on behalf of the Central Government.
The Treasury bill market in India is underdeveloped as compared to the Treasury bill markets in the U.S.A. and the U.K. In the U.S.A. and the U.K., the treasury bills are the most important money market instrument: (a) treasury bills provide a risk-free, profitable and highly liquid investment outlet for short-term, surpluses of various financial institutions; (b) treasury bills from an important source of raising fund for the government; and (c) for the central bank the treasury bills are the main instrument of open market operations.
On the contrary, the Indian Treasury bill market has no dealers expect the Reserve Bank of India. Besides the Reserve Bank, some treasury bills are held by commercial banks, state government and semi-government bodies.
But, these treasury bills are not popular with the non-bank financial institutions, corporations, and individuals mainly because of absence of a developed Treasury bill market.
3. Commercial Bill Market:
Commercial bill market deals in commercial bills issued by the firms engaged in business. These bills are generally of three months maturity. A commercial bill is a promise to pay a specified amount in a specified period by the buyer of goods to the seller of the goods.
The seller, who has sold his goods on credit draws the bill and sends it to the buyer for acceptance. After the buyer or his bank writes the word ‘accepted’ on the bill, it becomes a marketable instrument and is sent to the seller.
The seller can now sell the bill (i.e., get it discounted) to his bank for cash. In times of financial crisis, the bank can sell the bills to other banks or get them rediscounted from the Reserved Bank.
In India, the bill market is undeveloped as compared to the same in advanced countries like the U.K. There is absence of specialised institutions like acceptance houses and discount houses, particularly dealing in acceptance and discounting business.
4. Collateral Loan Market:
Collateral loan market deals with collateral loans i.e., loans backed by security. In the Indian collateral loan market, the commercial banks provide short- term loans against government securities, shares and debentures of the government, etc.
5. Certificate of Deposit and Commercial Paper Markets:
Certificate of Deposit (CD) and Commercial Paper (CP) markets deal with certificates of deposit and commercial papers. These two instruments (CD and CP) were introduced by Reserve Bank of India in March 1989 in order to widen the range of money market instruments and give investors greater flexibility in the deployment of their short-term surplus funds. (For details, see later pages of this chapter).