Notes on the Indian campaign of INA. Why was it a failure? What is the significance of it?


Indian Campaign of INA:

Subhas Chandra reorganized the INA, and three more brigades were raised. The three new brigades were named after Gandhi, Azad and Nehra. After finalizing the strategy of the impending campaign with the Japanese military officials the first battalion under the command of Shah Nawaz Khan proceeded toward India via Kaladan Valley in Arakan and Chin Hill areas.

At one time the Azad Hind Fauz accompanied by the Japanese soldiers marched towards Kohima, the present state-capital of Nagaland.


A few detachments of the Azad Hind Fauz even hoisted the tri-colour flag on the hill top. Encouraged by the success the Azad Hind Fauz decided to march towards Imphal.

But Japanese reverses in the international war theatre made the position of the Azad Hind Fauz very difficult.

Moreover, with the early setting of rains the supply of rations and ammunition to the troops became very difficult as the condition of road became very bad.

Under a situation like this the Azad Hind forces in India had to surrender to the British soldiers.


Shocked by the news Netaji Subhas let Burma for Saigon wherefrom he proceeded towards Formosa on 18 August, 1945 It is said that Netaji breathed his last in an accident (air-crash), though opinions are still very strong in a section of the Indian people that probably he is alive.

b. Failure of IN A:

Various causes may be assigned to the failure of the INA. (1) Lack of warplanes was a serious weakness from which the INA suffered.

(2) Failure of the supply line made it difficult for the soldiers to fight.


(3) Lack of proper equipments, including dresses was also responsible for the failure of the INA.

(4) The inadequate medical facility also accounts for the failure of the INA.

c. Significance:

It is true that the Indian campaign of the Indian National Army did not succeed in freeing the country.


Yet one can hardly underestimate the significance of the Indian campaign of the INA First, it was the Indian National Army who first hoisted the tri-colour flag on the Indian soil, even before India became independent formally.

Second, the heroic sacrifice of the INA soldiers served as an encouragement to the freedom fighters of the country.

Third, the sympathy expressed by the Indians when the INA generals were brought to trial at the Red Fort is an indication of the high honour and respect the Indian people had for them.

Fourth, within two years after the INA’s campaign the British left the country for good.

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