a. The Kali Age:

The Kali, as described by Professor. R.S.Shar means the neglect of rituals, and the predominance and influence heretical sects and also of foreign and non-brahmanical rulers.

That is to say, in the Kali Age the Vaishyas and Sudras not only flouted the rules of marriage but also refused to abide by the injunctions Dharmasastra. The Kali Age has been described vividly in differ Puranas such as: Vayu Purana, Vishnu Purana, etc.

b. The crisis:


The crisis of the Kali Age was that the Vaishyas the Sudras became reluctant to perform the primary task production. Another crisis of the Kali Age constituted the violati; of marriage rules.