The UNESCO stands for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. It is a specialized agency of the U.N.O. It came into existence on November 4,1946. Its head office is situated in Paris (France).
It consists of three organs.
1. The General Conference:
It consists of representatives of all the member states. It meets once a year to review the work of the UNESCO and to pass its annual budget.
The General Conference frames the policy of the Organization.
2. The Executive Board:
It consists of 18 members elected by the Conference for a term of three years. Six new members are elected every year. The members act as private individuals and not as representatives of their states. The board is responsible for putting the programme adopted by the Conference into practice.
3. The Secretariat:
It is the office of the UNESCO. It has its headquarters in Paris. The Director General is the head of the Secretariat. He is appointed by the General Conference on the recommendations of the Executive Board.
The main function of the agency is to contribute to Peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture so that the different states of the world may respect justice, rule of law and human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction of sex, race, language or religion. It concentrates on developing understanding among nations.
It collaborates in the work of advancing the mutual knowledge and understanding of peoples through all means of mass communication. It publishes books of art and culture of nations and helps in promotion of goodwill and affinity between different cultures.
It encourages teaching and understanding of science. It spreads knowledge of the principles of the charter of the U.N.O., human rights, etc. It exchanges experts, in various countries, promote and help mass education. It helps in promoting educational standards and enrichment of culture.