There has never been complete solidarity within the non-aligned movement. Even at the Bandung Conference 1955) that was a preliminary meet leading to non- aligned summit at Belgrade in 1961, criticism was voiced against the concept of positive neutralism as advocated by Nehru. With the passage of time the movement has all the more ceased to be as compact it used to be because of phenomenal increase in its membership.

In fact USA, Soviet Russia and Communist China never approved of this movement in the beginning and worked for its destruction from the very beginning. With the passage of time when non-alignment gained credibility, it became all the more important for these countries to win allies in the non-align&d.

The first serious crisis arose at the time of Sino-Indian conflict of 1962. It seemed the non-aligned countries remained neutral between India and China either because the aggression was not so clear to them or they did not want to choose between the two big countries.

Five of the non-aligned countries met at Colombo and passed a resolution which was favourable to India. With the withdrawal of the Chinese troops from NEFA, non-alignment survived the crisis.


Fidel Castro of Cuba who is considered to be a close ally of Soviet Russia, made a controversial speech and questioned anti-bloc tendency of the non-aligned at the Algiers Conference held in 1973. So, for the first time it was at the Algiers Conference that it was discussed if non- alignment is a product of cold-war or anti-colonial struggle.

The contention of Castro was that Soviet Russia has given persistent support to the goals and objectives of non-alignment. She is therefore, a close ally of non-alignment.

Tanzania’s President, Dr. Nyerere, popularly known as the Gandhi of Africa, stated, “I am not quite sure that the movement has permanent enemies and permanent friends, let alone natural ones “

Sukarno and Nasser retorted by saying that non-alignment should continue in the tradition of Bandung and remain primarily an Afro-Asian Movement.


Burma, one of the founding members of the movement, quit at the end of the Havana summit by saying ‘”The delegation of Burma had come to Havana in the hope that the principles which inspired the found­ing members of the movement can be preserved and given new life here.

But obviously there are also those who do not, and deliberately destroy the movement to gain their own grand designs.” However, this made little difference and Cuba continued to inject its philosophy into the movement through various devices-

It was at the Colombo Conference held in 1976 that Cuba’s role in Angola came under sharp criticism.

President Gadaffi warned that Egypt was opposed to the rights of Palestinians as it wanted to settle with Israel.


Singapore along with some Asian countries strongly objected to terms such as ‘genuine independence’ and ‘neocolonialism’. The South- Asian countries, they said, had chosen the path of development through industrialisation by invitation. They hoped to transform their economies by inviting foreign capital and creating free trade zone.