The term weather means the state of the atmosphere at a particular place at a particular time. It includes the information regarding temperature, air pressure, condition of the sky, humidity precipitation etc.


The climate is the average atmospheric conditions of an area over a considerable period of time.



The scientific study of weather condition is called meteorology. Weather forecast can be made with the help meteorology.


The magnitude of heat or the measurement”‘ heat is called temperature.



The temperature of a body is measured with the help of a thermometer. A thermometer is generally a narrow glass tube filled with a liquid. The most commonly used liquids are mercury and alcohol.

Types of thermometers

Mainly two scales are used for the measurement of the temperature-the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. Six’s maximum and minimum thermometer is used to measure the maximum and minimum temperatures during day and night.



Barometeris an instrument with the help of which the atmospheric pressure is measured.


Millibar is a unit of atmospheric pressure. A pressure of 1,000 millibars is equivalent to 75 cm of mercury column.


Wind vane:

An instrument used in recording the direction of the wind is called a wind vane.


An anemometer is an instrument which is used to measure the speed of wind.



The humidity of air is a measure of the amount of water vapors present in the air.


Hygrometer is an instrument with the help of which the humidity of the atmosphere is measured.



An instrument which is used for measuring rainfall.

Important Questions

1. What is barograph ?

Ans. Meteorologists usually use an instrument to monitor pressure which is called barograph.

2. Who are meteorologists ?

Ans. The scientists who study weather and collect data’s for Weather information are called meteorologists.

3. What is the approx. atmospheric pressure at sea level ?

Ans. 1,013.2 millibar.

4. Which is the most commonly used barometer ?

Ans. Aneroid barometer.

5. What is Pluviograph ?

Ans. A self-recording instrument called pluviograph which is used in measuring rainfall